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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Honokiol     2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl- phenyl)-4-prop...

Synonyms: houpa, CHEMBL16901, S2310_Selleck, SureCN133034, Bio-0326, ...
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Disease relevance of Honokiol


Psychiatry related information on Honokiol

  • Use of the elevated plus-maze experiment and activity and traction tests in mice have revealed that seven daily treatments with 0.2 mg kg(-1) and higher doses of honokiol, a neolignane derivative extracted from Magnolia bark, had an anxiolytic effect without change in motor activity or muscle tone [6].

High impact information on Honokiol

  • Honokiol-induced apoptosis was characterized by the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) [2].
  • Honokiol induced caspase-dependent cell death in all of the B-CLL cells examined and was more toxic toward B-CLL cells than to normal mononuclear cells, suggesting greater susceptibility of the malignant cells [2].
  • Exposure of B-CLL cells to honokiol resulted in up-regulation of Bcl2-associated protein (Bax) and down-regulation of the expression of the key survival protein myeloid-cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), which is associated with response to treatment in B-CLL patients [2].
  • In addition, B-CLL cells pretreated with interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine known to support B-CLL survival, underwent apoptosis when subsequently incubated with honokiol, indicating that honokiol could also overcome the prosurvival effects of IL-4 [2].
  • In addition, honokiol demonstrated preferential inhibition of primary human endothelial cells compared with fibroblasts and this inhibition was antagonized by antibodies against TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of Honokiol


Biological context of Honokiol


Anatomical context of Honokiol

  • We observed that the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation was blocked by honokiol in four different cancer cell lines as evidenced by EMSA [12].
  • Moreover, honokiol treatment caused the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol and sequential activation of caspases [13].
  • In addition, at lower concentration (0.376-3.76 muM), honokiol significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and significantly lowered the activity of caspase-3 stimulated by ox-LDL [8].
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol on neutrophils: mechanisms in the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production [14].
  • Primary rat hepatocytes were pretreated with honokiol at concentrations of 40, 20 and 10 microM 5 min before glycochenodeoxycholic acid treatment [15].

Associations of Honokiol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Honokiol

  • Using a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) luciferase reporter assay system and Western analysis, we identified that magnolol and honokiol exert their anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the NF-kappaB element, which exists in Cox-2, IL-8, and TNF-alpha promoters [(15 microM magnolol: 44.8% inhibition), (15 microM honokiol: 42.3% inhibition)] [18].
  • The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 enhanced by honokiol was inhibited by PD98059 as well as by KN93, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK II) inhibitor [19].
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) activity was also suppressed by them [(15 microM magnolol: 45.8% inhibition), (15 microM honokiol: 66.3% inhibition)] [18].
  • Thus, overall, our results indicate that NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression inhibited by honokiol enhances apoptosis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis and invasion [20].
  • Magnolol and honokiol inhibited the activity of MMP-9, which may have been responsible, in part, for the inhibition of tumor cell invasiveness [21].
  • Exposure of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, and C4-2) to honokiol resulted in apoptotic DNA fragmentation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner irrespective of their androgen responsiveness or p53 status [22].
  • Although HNSCC xenograft models did not show significant inhibition of in vivo tumor growth with honokiol treatment alone, the combination of honokiol plus cetuximab, a Food and Drug Administration-approved EGFR inhibitor for this malignancy, significantly enhanced growth inhibition [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Honokiol


  1. Honokiol overcomes conventional drug resistance in human multiple myeloma by induction of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Ishitsuka, K., Hideshima, T., Hamasaki, M., Raje, N., Kumar, S., Hideshima, H., Shiraishi, N., Yasui, H., Roccaro, A.M., Richardson, P., Podar, K., Le Gouill, S., Chauhan, D., Tamura, K., Arbiser, J., Anderson, K.C. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The natural product honokiol induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells. Battle, T.E., Arbiser, J., Frank, D.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Bai, X., Cerimele, F., Ushio-Fukai, M., Waqas, M., Campbell, P.M., Govindarajan, B., Der, C.J., Battle, T., Frank, D.A., Ye, K., Murad, E., Dubiel, W., Soff, G., Arbiser, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Honokiol, a small molecular weight natural product, alleviates experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Chiang, C.K., Sheu, M.L., Hung, K.Y., Wu, K.D., Liu, S.H. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Facile purification of honokiol and its antiviral and cytotoxic properties. Amblard, F., Delinsky, D., Arbiser, J.L., Schinazi, R.F. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Honokiol, a putative anxiolytic agent extracted from magnolia bark, has no diazepam-like side-effects in mice. Kuribara, H., Stavinoha, W.B., Maruyama, Y. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuroprotective activity of honokiol and magnolol in cerebellar granule cell damage. Lin, Y.R., Chen, H.H., Ko, C.H., Chan, M.H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Honokiol up-regulates prostacyclin synthease protein expression and inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis. Zhang, X., Chen, S., Wang, Y. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Honokiol, a natural plant product, inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells. Shigemura, K., Arbiser, J.L., Sun, S.Y., Zayzafoon, M., Johnstone, P.A., Fujisawa, M., Gotoh, A., Weksler, B., Zhau, H.E., Chung, L.W. Cancer (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Antiarrhythmic effect of magnolol and honokiol during acute phase of coronary occlusion in anesthetized rats: influence of L-NAME and aspirin. Tsai, S.K., Huang, C.H., Huang, S.S., Hung, L.M., Hong, C.Y. Pharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Magnolol and honokiol isolated from Magnolia officinalis protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation. Lo, Y.C., Teng, C.M., Chen, C.F., Chen, C.C., Hong, C.Y. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Honokiol inhibits TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression through suppression of IKK activation. Tse, A.K., Wan, C.K., Shen, X.L., Yang, M., Fong, W.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Down-modulation of Bcl-XL, release of cytochrome c and sequential activation of caspases during honokiol-induced apoptosis in human squamous lung cancer CH27 cells. Yang, S.E., Hsieh, M.T., Tsai, T.H., Hsu, S.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol on neutrophils: mechanisms in the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. Liou, K.T., Shen, Y.C., Chen, C.F., Tsao, C.M., Tsai, S.K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Honokiol reduces oxidative stress, c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation and protects against glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Park, E.J., Kim, S.Y., Zhao, Y.Z., Sohn, D.H. Planta Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite electrode for capillary electrophoretic measurement of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. Yao, X., Xu, X., Yang, P., Chen, G. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Magnolol and honokiol enhance HL-60 human leukemia cell differentiation induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid. Fong, W.F., Tse, A.K., Poon, K.H., Wang, C. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of magnolol and honokiol are mediated through inhibition of the downstream pathway of MEKK-1 in NF-kappaB activation signaling. Lee, J., Jung, E., Park, J., Jung, K., Lee, S., Hong, S., Park, J., Park, E., Kim, J., Park, S., Park, D. Planta Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Honokiol-induced neurite outgrowth promotion depends on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Zhai, H., Nakade, K., Oda, M., Mitsumoto, Y., Akagi, M., Sakurai, J., Fukuyama, Y. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Honokiol Potentiates Apoptosis, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis, and Inhibits Invasion through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Activation Pathway. Ahn, K.S., Sethi, G., Shishodia, S., Sung, B., Arbiser, J.L., Aggarwal, B.B. Mol. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibitory effect of magnolol and honokiol from Magnolia obovata on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080. Invasiveness in vitro. Nagase, H., Ikeda, K., Sakai, Y. Planta Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Honokiol, a constituent of oriental medicinal herb magnolia officinalis, inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. Hahm, E.R., Arlotti, J.A., Marynowski, S.W., Singh, S.V. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  23. Honokiol inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and enhances the antitumor effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Leeman-Neill, R.J., Cai, Q., Joyce, S.C., Thomas, S.M., Bhola, N.E., Neill, D.B., Arbiser, J.L., Grandis, J.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2010) [Pubmed]
  24. Myocardial protective effect of honokiol: an active component in Magnolia officinalis. Tsai, S.K., Huang, S.S., Hong, C.Y. Planta Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Honokiol ameliorates cerebral infarction from ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Liou, K.T., Lin, S.M., Huang, S.S., Chih, C.L., Tsai, S.K. Planta Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis by honokiol in rat basophilic leukemia cells. Hamasaki, Y., Muro, E., Miyanji, S., Yamamoto, S., Kobayashi, I., Sato, R., Zaitu, M., Matsuo, M., Ichimaru, T., Tasaki, H., Miyazaki, S. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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