The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

DNTT  -  DNA nucleotidylexotransferase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TDT, Terminal addition enzyme, Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, Terminal transferase
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of DNTT


Psychiatry related information on DNTT

  • To address this controversy we recruited a sample of 316 patients with anorexia nervosa from six European centres, and utilised a family-based transmission disequilibrium (TDT) approach to analyse the HTR2A-1438 G/A polymorphism [5].
  • We examined the degeneration of neocortical neurons in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using terminal transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (d-UTP)-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL), a method that identifies DNA strand breaks and constitutes a positive marker for dying neurons [6].
  • TDT-association analysis of EKN1 and dyslexia in a Colorado twin cohort [7].
  • With prolonged reaction-time the terminal transferase-mediated DNA-end labeling revealed a signal in 2.0 +/-1.2% melanin-containing cells in PD compared to 1.3 +/-1.1% in control [8].
  • Using haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) and transmission/disequilibrium (TDT) analyses, no evidence was found for an association of 5HT-2A with bipolar affective disorder under the assumption of no imprinting and of imprinting [9].

High impact information on DNTT


Chemical compound and disease context of DNTT


Biological context of DNTT


Anatomical context of DNTT


Associations of DNTT with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of DNTT

  • CONCLUSIONS: TdIF2 binds directly to TdT and core histone [20].
  • TdT interacts with PCNA in its DNA polymerization domain (DPD), but not in its BRCA-1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain [24].

Enzymatic interactions of DNTT

  • These findings suggest that TdT catalyses the addition of N nucleotides under the negative control of PCNA during V(D)J recombination [24].
  • However, since DNA fragmentation also occurs in cellular necrosis, we studied to which extent the use of DNA polymerase (nick translation) or terminal transferase (tailing) allows the differentiation between internucleosomal DNA degradation, typical for apoptosis, and the more random DNA destruction in necrosis [32].

Regulatory relationships of DNTT


Other interactions of DNTT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DNTT


  1. Mutational analysis of residues in the nucleotide binding domain of human terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Yang, B., Gathy, K.N., Coleman, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Adenovirus-mediated p21((WAF1/SDII/CIP1)) gene transfer induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cell lines. Tsao, Y.P., Huang, S.J., Chang, J.L., Hsieh, J.T., Pong, R.C., Chen, S.L. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Terminal transferase as a predictor of initial responsiveness to vincristine and prednisone in blastic chronic myelogenous leukemia: a co-operative study. Marks, S.M., Baltimore, D., McCaffrey, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase distribution in neoplastic and hematopoietic cells. Greenwood, M.F., Coleman, M.S., Hutton, J.J., Lampkin, B., Krill, C., Bolium, F.J., Holland, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. The 5-HT(2A) -1438G/A polymorphism in anorexia nervosa: a combined analysis of 316 trios from six European centres. Gorwood, P., Adès, J., Bellodi, L., Cellini, E., Collier, D.A., Di Bella, D., Di Bernardo, M., Estivill, X., Fernandez-Aranda, F., Gratacos, M., Hebebrand, J., Hinney, A., Hu, X., Karwautz, A., Kipman, A., Mouren-Siméoni, M.C., Nacmias, B., Ribasés, M., Remschmidt, H., Ricca, V., Rotella, C.M., Sorbi, S., Treasure, J. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. In situ labeling of dying cortical neurons in normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease: correlations with senile plaques and disease progression. Troncoso, J.C., Sukhov, R.R., Kawas, C.H., Koliatsos, V.E. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. TDT-association analysis of EKN1 and dyslexia in a Colorado twin cohort. Meng, H., Hager, K., Held, M., Page, G.P., Olson, R.K., Pennington, B.F., Defries, J.C., Smith, S.D., Gruen, J.R. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell death and apoptosis regulating proteins in Parkinson's disease--a cautionary note. Wüllner, U., Kornhuber, J., Weller, M., Schulz, J.B., Löschmann, P.A., Riederer, P., Klockgether, T. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. No association between 5HT-2A and bipolar disorder irrespective of genomic imprinting. Murphy, V.E., Mynett-Johnson, L.A., Claffey, E., Shields, D.C., McKeon, P. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Eukaryotic DNA polymerases. Hubscher, U., Maga, G., Spadari, S. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The human telomere terminal transferase enzyme is a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes TTAGGG repeats. Morin, G.B. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Chromatin structure of the molecular ends of Oxytricha macronuclear DNA: phased nucleosomes and a telomeric complex. Gottschling, D.E., Cech, T.R. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Down-regulation of TDT transcription in CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes by Ikaros proteins in direct competition with an Ets activator. Trinh, L.A., Ferrini, R., Cobb, B.S., Weinmann, A.S., Hahm, K., Ernst, P., Garraway, I.P., Merkenschlager, M., Smale, S.T. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Multiple sclerosis: Fas signaling in oligodendrocyte cell death. D'Souza, S.D., Bonetti, B., Balasingam, V., Cashman, N.R., Barker, P.A., Troutt, A.B., Raine, C.S., Antel, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Macrophages from cancer patients: analysis of TRAIL, TRAIL receptors, and colon tumor cell apoptosis. Herbeuval, J.P., Lambert, C., Sabido, O., Cottier, M., Fournel, P., Dy, M., Genin, C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Antiapoptotic role of endogenous nitric oxide in human melanoma cells. Salvucci, O., Carsana, M., Bersani, I., Tragni, G., Anichini, A. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis produced by arachidonic acid in Hep G2 cells overexpressing human cytochrome P4502E1. Chen, Q., Galleano, M., Cederbaum, A.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Minocycline inhibits apoptosis and inflammation in a rat model of ischemic renal injury. Kelly, K.J., Sutton, T.A., Weathered, N., Ray, N., Caldwell, E.J., Plotkin, Z., Dagher, P.C. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer inhibits angiotensin II-mediated rat cardiac myocyte apoptosis but not hypertrophy. Foo, R.S., Siow, R.C., Brown, M.J., Bennett, M.R. J. Cell. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase forms a ternary complex with a novel chromatin remodeling protein with 82 kDa and core histone. Fujita, K., Shimazaki, N., Ohta, Y., Kubota, T., Ibe, S., Toji, S., Tamai, K., Fujisaki, S., Hayano, T., Koiwai, O. Genes Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of the tyroservaltide (YSV) tripeptide on human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402. Jia, J., Lu, R., Qiu, S., Li, H., Che, X., Zhao, P., Jin, M., Yang, H., Lin, G., Yao, Z. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Chromosome localization of the gene for human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase to region 10q23-q25. Isobe, M., Huebner, K., Erikson, J., Peterson, R.C., Bollum, F.J., Chang, L.M., Croce, C.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. DNA polymerase mu gene expression in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: an analysis utilizing in situ hybridization. Chiu, A., Pan, L., Li, Z., Ely, S., Chadburn, A., Knowles, D.M. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase is negatively regulated by direct interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Ibe, S., Fujita, K., Toyomoto, T., Shimazaki, N., Kaneko, R., Tanabe, A., Takebe, I., Kuroda, S., Kobayashi, T., Toji, S., Tamai, K., Yamamoto, H., Koiwai, O. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. DNA polymerase mu (Pol mu), homologous to TdT, could act as a DNA mutator in eukaryotic cells. Domínguez, O., Ruiz, J.F., Laín de Lera, T., García-Díaz, M., González, M.A., Kirchhoff, T., Martínez-A, C., Bernad, A., Blanco, L. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Evidence against T-cell development in the adult human intestinal mucosa based upon lack of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase expression. Taplin, M.E., Frantz, M.E., Canning, C., Ritz, J., Blumberg, R.S., Balk, S.P. Immunology (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA). Hokland, P., Rosenthal, P., Griffin, J.D., Nadler, L.M., Daley, J., Hokland, M., Schlossman, S.F., Ritz, J. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Restoration of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) expression induces apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenicity in lung and cervical cancer cell lines. Roz, L., Gramegna, M., Ishii, H., Croce, C.M., Sozzi, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Shear stress-induced apoptosis of adherent neutrophils: a mechanism for persistence of cardiovascular device infections. Shive, M.S., Salloum, M.L., Anderson, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Inactive X chromosome has the highest concentration of unmethylated Hha I sites. Viegas-Pequignot, E., Dutrillaux, B., Thomas, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Programmed cell death in castor bean endosperm is associated with the accumulation and release of a cysteine endopeptidase from ricinosomes. Schmid, M., Simpson, D., Gietl, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Differentiation between cellular apoptosis and necrosis by the combined use of in situ tailing and nick translation techniques. Gold, R., Schmied, M., Giegerich, G., Breitschopf, H., Hartung, H.P., Toyka, K.V., Lassmann, H. Lab. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes from aged humans: changes in TNF-alpha receptor expression and activation of caspases. Aggarwal, S., Gollapudi, S., Gupta, S. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. DNA elongation by the human DNA polymerase lambda polymerase and terminal transferase activities are differentially coordinated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and replication protein A. Maga, G., Ramadan, K., Locatelli, G.A., Shevelev, I., Spadari, S., Hübscher, U. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage/repair proteins are elevated in the failing human myocardium due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Bartunek, J., Vanderheyden, M., Knaapen, M.W., Tack, W., Kockx, M.M., Goethals, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. p75 neurotrophin receptor expression on adult human oligodendrocytes: signaling without cell death in response to NGF. Ladiwala, U., Lachance, C., Simoneau, S.J., Bhakar, A., Barker, P.A., Antel, J.P. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Detection of leukaemic lymphoblasts in CSF by immunofluorescence for terminal transferase. Bradstock, K.F., Papageorgiou, E.S., Janossy, G., Hoffbrand, A.V., Willoughby, M.L., Roberts, P.D., Bollum, F.J. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Telomere dysfunction triggers extensive DNA fragmentation and evolution of complex chromosome abnormalities in human malignant tumors. Gisselsson, D., Jonson, T., Petersén, A., Strömbeck, B., Dal Cin, P., Höglund, M., Mitelman, F., Mertens, F., Mandahl, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. A new solid-phase immunoassay for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase: analysis of TdT antigen in cells, plasma, and serum. Coleman, M.S., Cibull, M.L., Manderino, G.L. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  40. HL-T, a new cell line derived from HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell cultures expressing terminal transferase and secreting suppressor activity. Paietta, E., Stockert, R.J., Calvelli, T., Papenhausen, P., Seremetis, S.V., Fotino, M., Wiernik, P.H., Chang, L., Bollum, F.J. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities