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Gene Review

Acta1  -  actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA959943, Acta, Acta-2, Actin, alpha skeletal muscle, Acts, ...
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Disease relevance of Acta1


Psychiatry related information on Acta1

  • Moreover, they demonstrate a potential role for class I bHLH factors and their inhibitors, Id and Twist, in SM alpha-actin regulation and suggest that these factors may play an important role in control of SMC differentiation and phenotypic modulation [6].

High impact information on Acta1

  • To understand how DNA methylation affects tissue-specific activation of genes, we have transfected in vitro methylated alpha-actin (skeletal) constructs into fibroblasts, which do not produce endogenous alpha-actin, and into a myogenic line, which is inducible for alpha-actin expression [7].
  • Vitelline vessels from null mice were deficient in smooth-muscle alpha-actin-expressing mesenchymal cells, which participate in organization of the vessel wall [8].
  • We hypothesized that this CArG degeneracy contributes to cell-specific expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin in vivo, since substitution of c-fos consensus CArGs for the degenerate CArGs resulted in relaxed specificity in cultured cells [9].
  • Using a carotid wire-injury model in mice carrying transgenes for smooth muscle alpha-actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, or a SM22alpha promoter-beta-gal reporter, we collected arteries 7 and 14 days after injury and assessed changes in endogenous protein and mRNA levels and in beta-gal activity [10].
  • The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acta1

  • As previously reported (I. Yano, I. Tomiyasu, S. Kitabatake, and K. Kaneda, Acta Leprologica 2:341-349, 1984), Nocardia rubra, one of the nonpathogenic actinomycetes, possesses three classes of mycolic acid-containing glycolipid, i.e., glucose mycolate, trehalose dimycolate, and trehalose monomycolate [12].
  • As reported previously [Acta Neurobiol. Exp. 57 (1997) 263], palmitoylcarnitine was observed to promote differentiation of neuroblastoma NB-2a cells with a concomitant inhibition of proliferation and of the phorbol ester stimulated activity of the protein kinase C (PKC) [13].
  • We previously reported that the induction of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in mouse mastocytoma cells was synergistically potentiated with a combination of dexamethasone and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) [Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1133, 172-178 (1992)] [14].
  • Nuclei from K21 murine mastocytoma cells do not form topoisomerase II-DNA adducts in response to amsacrine in the absence of a cytoplasmic factor tentatively identified as a type of casein kinase (Darkin, S.J. and Ralph, R.K. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088, 285-291) [15].
  • Previous studies demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was associated with increased transcription of SM alpha-actin gene [16].

Biological context of Acta1


Anatomical context of Acta1

  • Detailed comparison of their promoter sequences, as well as those of the cardiac and skeletal muscle alpha-actin genes, reveals a number of common elements [20].
  • RESULTS: ISMCs expressed smooth muscle alpha-actin before and after IFN-gamma exposure [21].
  • We have introduced the chicken genes for cytoplasmic beta-actin, cardiac alpha-actin, and skeletal alpha-actin into C2 cells, a murine myogenic cell line, and into L cells by using the simian virus 40-derived vector PSV2 -gpt [22].
  • Peroxisome proliferators induce stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (EC in liver [Kawashima, Y., Hanioka, N., Matsumura, M. & Kozuka, H. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 752, 259-264] [23].
  • However, this additional proliferative growth is not reflected in abnormal myocyte maturation, as assessed by the expression of the cardiac and skeletal isoforms of alpha-actin [24].

Associations of Acta1 with chemical compounds

  • The skeletal alpha-actin gene is expressed poorly in pre- and post-fusion C2 cells, displaying no induction with differentiation [22].
  • Muscles lacking SRF had very low levels of muscle creatine kinase and skeletal alpha-actin (SKA) transcripts and displayed other alterations to the gene expression program, indicating an overall immaturity of mutant muscles [25].
  • Cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, inhibitors of actin polymerization, significantly reduced RhoA-induced activation of the alpha-actin promoter [26].
  • Activation of the alpha-actin promoter by RhoA is greatly potentiated (up to 15-fold) by co-expression of the integrin beta1A or beta1D isoform but is significantly reduced by 70% with a co-expressed dominant negative mutant of beta1 integrin [26].
  • Although the VSM alpha-actin promoter exhibits at least three similar sequence elements, it remained refractory to serum and cycloheximide induction [27].

Physical interactions of Acta1


Regulatory relationships of Acta1

  • The present study demonstrates a significant functional correlation between alpha-actin isoform content and cardiac contractile function and also that alpha-skeletal actin may promote an increased contractile function in the heart compared with alpha-cardiac actin [30].
  • TGFbeta induces expression of smooth muscle alpha actin (SMalphaA) and incorporation into in stress fibers, a phenotype of differentiated myofibroblasts [31].
  • These findings support the hypothesis that Pur alpha and Pur beta repress smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcription by means of DNA strand-selective cis-element binding and cell type-dependent protein-protein interactions [28].
  • Induction of vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcription in transforming growth factor beta1-activated myofibroblasts mediated by dynamic interplay between the Pur repressor proteins and Sp1/Smad coactivators [32].
  • There was reduced alpha-actin expression in KO HC mice 7 days after injury that was partially inhibited by VCAM-1 antibody treatment [33].

Other interactions of Acta1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acta1


  1. The expression of sarcomeric muscle-specific contractile protein genes in BC3H1 cells: BC3H1 cells resemble skeletal myoblasts that are defective for commitment to terminal differentiation. Taubman, M.B., Smith, C.W., Izumo, S., Grant, J.W., Endo, T., Andreadis, A., Nadal-Ginard, B. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Y-27632 prevents tubulointerstitial fibrosis in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Nagatoya, K., Moriyama, T., Kawada, N., Takeji, M., Oseto, S., Murozono, T., Ando, A., Imai, E., Hori, M. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Myogenic vector expression of insulin-like growth factor I stimulates muscle cell differentiation and myofiber hypertrophy in transgenic mice. Coleman, M.E., DeMayo, F., Yin, K.C., Lee, H.M., Geske, R., Montgomery, C., Schwartz, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell cycle-mediated regulation of smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcription in fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells involves multiple adenovirus E1A-interacting cofactors. Wang, S.X., Elder, P.K., Zheng, Y., Strauch, A.R., Kelm, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Myofibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation during murine myocardial infarct repair. Virag, J.I., Murry, C.E. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Smooth muscle alpha-actin gene requires two E-boxes for proper expression in vivo and is a target of class I basic helix-loop-helix proteins. Kumar, M.S., Hendrix, J.A., Johnson, A.D., Owens, G.K. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Muscle-specific activation of a methylated chimeric actin gene. Yisraeli, J., Adelstein, R.S., Melloul, D., Nudel, U., Yaffe, D., Cedar, H. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of tissue factor in embryonic blood vessel development. Carmeliet, P., Mackman, N., Moons, L., Luther, T., Gressens, P., Van Vlaenderen, I., Demunck, H., Kasper, M., Breier, G., Evrard, P., Müller, M., Risau, W., Edgington, T., Collen, D. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. 5' CArG degeneracy in smooth muscle alpha-actin is required for injury-induced gene suppression in vivo. Hendrix, J.A., Wamhoff, B.R., McDonald, O.G., Sinha, S., Yoshida, T., Owens, G.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular mechanisms of decreased smooth muscle differentiation marker expression after vascular injury. Regan, C.P., Adam, P.J., Madsen, C.S., Owens, G.K. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. Shi, C., Feinberg, M.W., Zhang, D., Patel, A., Sim, C.U., Dong, Z.M., Chapman, S.M., Gutierrez-Ramos, J.C., Wagner, D.D., Sibinga, N.E., Haber, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Granuloma formation and hemopoiesis induced by C36-48-mycolic acid-containing glycolipids from Nocardia rubra. Kaneda, K., Sumi, Y., Kurano, F., Kato, Y., Yano, I. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of palmitoylcarnitine with protein kinase C in neuroblastoma NB-2a cells. Sobiesiak-Mirska, J., Nałecz, M.J., Nałecz, K.A. Neurochem. Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhanced expression of the mouse L-histidine decarboxylase gene with a combination of dexamethasone and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Ohgoh, M., Yamamoto, J., Kawata, M., Yamamura, I., Fukui, T., Ichikawa, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of topoisomerase II by murine mastocytoma cells. Collett, A.G., Ralph, R.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Myocardin and Prx1 contribute to angiotensin II-induced expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin. Yoshida, T., Hoofnagle, M.H., Owens, G.K. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Re-localization of Actsk-1 to mouse chromosome 8, a new region of homology with human chromosome 1. Alonso, S., Montagutelli, X., Simon-Chazottes, D., Guénet, J.L., Buckingham, M. Mamm. Genome (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Serum response factor is essential for mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. Arsenian, S., Weinhold, B., Oelgeschläger, M., Rüther, U., Nordheim, A. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The complete sequence of the mouse skeletal alpha-actin gene reveals several conserved and inverted repeat sequences outside of the protein-coding region. Hu, M.C., Sharp, S.B., Davidson, N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Promoter analysis of myosin alkali light chain genes expressed in mouse striated muscle. Cohen, A., Barton, P.J., Robert, B., Garner, I., Alonso, S., Buckingham, M.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of T lymphocytes by syngeneic murine intestinal smooth muscle cells. Hogaboam, C.M., Snider, D.P., Collins, S.M. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression and regulation of chicken actin genes introduced into mouse myogenic and nonmyogenic cells. Seiler-Tuyns, A., Eldridge, J.D., Paterson, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Peroxisome proliferators induce mouse liver stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression. Miller, C.W., Ntambi, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The c-myc proto-oncogene regulates cardiac development in transgenic mice. Jackson, T., Allard, M.F., Sreenan, C.M., Doss, L.K., Bishop, S.P., Swain, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. New role for serum response factor in postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration via the interleukin 4 and insulin-like growth factor 1 pathways. Charvet, C., Houbron, C., Parlakian, A., Giordani, J., Lahoute, C., Bertrand, A., Sotiropoulos, A., Renou, L., Schmitt, A., Melki, J., Li, Z., Daegelen, D., Tuil, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. beta1 integrin and organized actin filaments facilitate cardiomyocyte-specific RhoA-dependent activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter. Wei, L., Wang, L., Carson, J.A., Agan, J.E., Imanaka-Yoshida, K., Schwartz, R.J. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of a muscle-specific actin gene promoter in serum-stimulated fibroblasts. Stoflet, E.S., Schmidt, L.J., Elder, P.K., Korf, G.M., Foster, D.N., Strauch, A.R., Getz, M.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Nucleoprotein interactions governing cell type-dependent repression of the mouse smooth muscle alpha-actin promoter by single-stranded DNA-binding proteins Pur alpha and Pur beta. Knapp, A.M., Ramsey, J.E., Wang, S.X., Godburn, K.E., Strauch, A.R., Kelm, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Heterodimers of myogenic helix-loop-helix regulatory factors and E12 bind a complex element governing myogenic induction of the avian cardiac alpha-actin promoter. French, B.A., Chow, K.L., Olson, E.N., Schwartz, R.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Alpha-skeletal actin is associated with increased contractility in the mouse heart. Hewett, T.E., Grupp, I.L., Grupp, G., Robbins, J. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. FAK-dependent regulation of myofibroblast differentiation. Greenberg, R.S., Bernstein, A.M., Benezra, M., Gelman, I.H., Taliana, L., Masur, S.K. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Induction of vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene transcription in transforming growth factor beta1-activated myofibroblasts mediated by dynamic interplay between the Pur repressor proteins and Sp1/Smad coactivators. Subramanian, S.V., Polikandriotis, J.A., Kelm, R.J., David, J.J., Orosz, C.G., Strauch, A.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Monoclonal antibody against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 inhibits neointimal formation after periadventitial carotid artery injury in genetically hypercholesterolemic mice. Oguchi, S., Dimayuga, P., Zhu, J., Chyu, K.Y., Yano, J., Shah, P.K., Nilsson, J., Cercek, B. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Linkage of Agt and Actsk-1 to distal mouse chromosome 8 loci: a new conserved linkage. Abonia, J.P., Abel, K.J., Eddy, R.L., Elliott, R.W., Chapman, V.M., Shows, T.B., Gross, K.W. Mamm. Genome (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. The cell adhesion molecule M-cadherin is specifically expressed in developing and regenerating, but not denervated skeletal muscle. Moore, R., Walsh, F.S. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Transforming growth factor beta-SMAD2 signaling regulates aortic arch innervation and development. Molin, D.G., Poelmann, R.E., DeRuiter, M.C., Azhar, M., Doetschman, T., Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Abnormal gene expression and regulation in the liver of jvs mice with systemic carnitine deficiency. Tomomura, M., Imamura, Y., Tomomura, A., Horiuchi, M., Saheki, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Mouse model of SCN5A-linked hereditary Lenègre's disease: age-related conduction slowing and myocardial fibrosis. Royer, A., van Veen, T.A., Le Bouter, S., Marionneau, C., Griol-Charhbili, V., Léoni, A.L., Steenman, M., van Rijen, H.V., Demolombe, S., Goddard, C.A., Richer, C., Escoubet, B., Jarry-Guichard, T., Colledge, W.H., Gros, D., de Bakker, J.M., Grace, A.A., Escande, D., Charpentier, F. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Exacerbated transplant arteriosclerosis in inducible nitric oxide-deficient mice. Koglin, J., Glysing-Jensen, T., Mudgett, J.S., Russell, M.E. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of ventral mesoderm. Maéno, M., Ong, R.C., Suzuki, A., Ueno, N., Kung, H.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Neonatal estrogen stimulates proliferation of periductal fibroblasts and alters the extracellular matrix composition in the rat prostate. Chang, W.Y., Wilson, M.J., Birch, L., Prins, G.S. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. Ultrastructural cytoskeleton alterations and modification of actin expression in the NIH/3T3 cell line after transformation with Ha-ras-activated oncogene. Lombardi, L., Ballinari, D., Bongarzone, I., Migliari, M., Mondellini, P., Traversari, C., Modina, S. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1990) [Pubmed]
  43. Dihydropyridine receptor gene expression is regulated by inhibitors of myogenesis and is relatively insensitive to denervation. Shih, H.T., Wathen, M.S., Marshall, H.B., Caffrey, J.M., Schneider, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
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