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Gene Review

MYO1E  -  myosin IE

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FSGS6, HuncM-IC, MGC104638, MYO1C, Myosin-Ic, ...
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Disease relevance of MYO1E


Psychiatry related information on MYO1E

  • From these and other data, we conclude that the essential role(s) of myosin I in A. nidulans is probably structural, requiring little, if any, actin-activated MgATPase or motor activity, which have long been considered the defining characteristics of the myosin family [6].
  • Cardiac myosin binding protein C gene is specifically expressed in heart during murine and human development [7].
  • After exercise, the recovery of phosphocreatine-an index of oxidative metabolic capacity of the muscle-was slower in the beta myosin heavy chain group (mean half time 0.65 (0.08) minutes) than in the troponin T group (0.60 (0.17) minutes) or controls (0.48 (0.14) minutes) [8].
  • In hyperthyroidism, the cross-bridge movement significantly preceded tension development, suggesting that hyperthyroid myosin (V1) has a longer latency period between the shift to the vicinity of the thin filament and force development [9].
  • Newly-reported structural information about certain proximities between points on bound nucleotide and points on the heavy chain of myosin S-1 are incorporated into a previously-reported [Botts, J. Thomason, J.F. & Morales, M.F. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 2204-2208 (1989)] structure of S-1 [10].

High impact information on MYO1E

  • Kinetics shows that the binding of myosin to actin is a two-step process which affects ATP and ADP affinity [11].
  • Molecular genetics of myosin [12].
  • Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II reflects the ratio of activities of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) to myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and is a major, regulated determinant of numerous cellular processes [13].
  • Structural and biochemical studies suggest that the position of tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) on the thin filament determines the interaction of myosin with the binding sites on actin [14].
  • 3) The initial rate of force development depends mostly on the extent of Ca(2+) activation of the thin filament and myosin kinetic properties but depends little on the initial force level [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of MYO1E

  • These approximately 190-kDa myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinases (MRCKs) preferentially phosphorylate nonmuscle myosin light chain at serine 19, which is known to be crucial for activating actin-myosin contractility [15].
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum myosin heavy-chain fragments, TnT, and TnI were studied up to 12 days after diagnosis in relationship to the serum creatine kinase level in 20 patients with rhabdomyolysis [16].
  • Herein, we show that inhibitors of myosin function, butanedione monoxide and ML-7, significantly blocked the E. coli invasion of HBMEC [17].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Syngeneic splenocytes, coupled with cardiac myosin by use of ethylene carbodiimide, were administered intravenously before disease induction, and the effects of this peripheral tolerization on myosin-induced myocarditis were assessed [18].
  • Compounds interfering with actin function, including phalloidin, the catalytic subunit of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, and N-ethylmaleimide-treated myosin S1 fragments were microinjected into the axon [19].

Biological context of MYO1E


Anatomical context of MYO1E

  • Myosin is identified and purified from three different established Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (Schneider's lines 2 and 3 and Kc) [23].
  • Additionally, S2 possesses a conserved charge distribution with three prominent rings of negative potential within S2-Delta, the first of which may provide a binding interface for the "blocked head" of smooth muscle myosin in the OFF state [24].
  • The observation that many disease-associated mutations affect the second negatively charged ring further suggests that charge interactions play an important role in regulation of cardiac muscle activity through myosin-binding protein C [24].
  • Myosin diversity in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2BBe, the porcine epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 (CL-4), human peripheral blood leukocytes, and human liver was analyzed [25].
  • Role for actin filament turnover and a myosin II motor in cytoskeleton-driven disassembly of the epithelial apical junctional complex [26].

Associations of MYO1E with chemical compounds

  • Cytochalasin B or butanedione monoxime blocked the contraction, which suggested that both actin filaments and myosin ATPase activity were required for the contraction [27].
  • The gelation induced by warming (to 25 degrees C) the 100,000 g supernatant fraction (extract) of HeLa cells lysed in a buffer containing sucrose, ATP, DTE, EGTA, imidazole, and Triton X-100 was studied in the presence of myosin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) [28].
  • Cloning of p95PKL revealed a multidomain protein containing an NH2-terminal ARF-GAP domain, three ankyrin-like repeats, a potential calcium-binding EF hand, calmodulin-binding IQ motifs, a myosin homology domain, and two paxillin-binding subdomains (PBS) [29].
  • Myosin light chain kinase functions downstream of Ras/ERK to promote migration of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-stimulated cells in an integrin-selective manner [30].
  • As the differentiation in a culture progressed, 1,10-phenanthroline became less effective in blocking the accumulation of creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain [31].

Regulatory relationships of MYO1E

  • Our data are consistent with myosin being directly phosphorylated by the expressed catalytic domain of ameba PAK with the induced phenotype resulting from cell retraction driven by contraction of peripheral actomyosin [32].

Other interactions of MYO1E


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MYO1E

  • The molecular weight of the cytoplasmic myosin's light chains and peptide mapping and immunochemical analysis of its heavy chains demonstrate that this myosin, purified from Drosophila cell lines, is distinct from Drosophila muscle myosin [23].
  • PCR amplification yielded 8-11 putative myosins (depending on the cDNA source) representing six distinct myosin classes [25].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Dictyostelium M7 (DdM7) interacts with talinA, an actin-binding protein with a known role in cell-substrate adhesion [35].
  • Using NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrate that cC2 alone binds to a fragment of myosin, S2Delta, with low affinity (k(D) = 1.1 mm) but exhibits a highly specific binding site [21].
  • AP-actin binds to skeletal myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and forms a homogeneous complex as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation [36].


  1. From flies' eyes to our ears: mutations in a human class III myosin cause progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB30. Walsh, T., Walsh, V., Vreugde, S., Hertzano, R., Shahin, H., Haika, S., Lee, M.K., Kanaan, M., King, M.C., Avraham, K.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Direct effects of leptin on size and extracellular matrix components of human pediatric ventricular myocytes. Madani, S., De Girolamo, S., Muñoz, D.M., Li, R.K., Sweeney, G. Cardiovasc. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiac autoantibodies to myosin and other heart-specific autoantigens in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Caforio, A.L., Mahon, N.J., Mckenna, W.J. Autoimmunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in myosin heavy chain 11 cause a syndrome associating thoracic aortic aneurysm/aortic dissection and patent ductus arteriosus. Zhu, L., Vranckx, R., Van Kien, P.K., Lalande, A., Boisset, N., Mathieu, F., Wegman, M., Glancy, L., Gasc, J.M., Brunotte, F., Bruneval, P., Wolf, J.E., Michel, J.B., Jeunemaitre, X. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of autoimmune myocarditis in interleukin-2-deficient mice. Grässl, G., Pummerer, C.L., Horak, I., Neu, N. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Myosin I mutants with only 1% of wild-type actin-activated MgATPase activity retain essential in vivo function(s). Liu, X., Osherov, N., Yamashita, R., Brzeska, H., Korn, E.D., May, G.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Cardiac myosin binding protein C gene is specifically expressed in heart during murine and human development. Fougerousse, F., Delezoide, A.L., Fiszman, M.Y., Schwartz, K., Beckmann, J.S., Carrier, L. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormal skeletal muscle bioenergetics in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thompson, C.H., Kemp, G.J., Taylor, D.J., Conway, M., Rajagopalan, B., O'Donoghue, A., Styles, P., McKenna, W.J., Radda, G.K. Heart (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Cross-bridge and calcium behavior in ferret papillary muscle in different thyroid states. Yagi, N., Saeki, Y., Ishikawa, T., Kurihara, S. Jpn. J. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The region in myosin S-1 that may be involved in energy transduction. Morales, M.F., Ue, K., Bivin, D.B. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural mechanism of muscle contraction. Geeves, M.A., Holmes, K.C. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular genetics of myosin. Emerson, C.P., Bernstein, S.I. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II: modulated by G proteins, kinases, and myosin phosphatase. Somlyo, A.P., Somlyo, A.V. Physiol. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of contraction in striated muscle. Gordon, A.M., Homsher, E., Regnier, M. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase acts as a Cdc42 effector in promoting cytoskeletal reorganization. Leung, T., Chen, X.Q., Tan, I., Manser, E., Lim, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Myosin heavy-chain fragments and cardiac troponins in the serum in rhabdomyolysis. Diagnostic specificity of new biochemical markers. Löfberg, M., Tähtelä, R., Härkönen, M., Somer, H. Arch. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Modulation of myosin light-chain phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 1 in Escherichia coli invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Rudrabhatla, R.S., Sukumaran, S.K., Bokoch, G.M., Prasadarao, N.V. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Prevention of autoimmune myocarditis through the induction of antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance. Godsel, L.M., Wang, K., Schodin, B.A., Leon, J.S., Miller, S.D., Engman, D.M. Circulation (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles after acute perturbation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton. Shupliakov, O., Bloom, O., Gustafsson, J.S., Kjaerulff, O., Low, P., Tomilin, N., Pieribone, V.A., Greengard, P., Brodin, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. The Ku protein complex interacts with YY1, is up-regulated in human heart failure, and represses alpha myosin heavy-chain gene expression. Sucharov, C.C., Helmke, S.M., Langer, S.J., Perryman, M.B., Bristow, M., Leinwand, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Dissecting the N-terminal Myosin Binding Site of Human Cardiac Myosin-binding Protein C: STRUCTURE AND MYOSIN BINDING OF DOMAIN C2. Ababou, A., Gautel, M., Pfuhl, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. PAK1 regulates myosin II-B phosphorylation, filament assembly, localization and cell chemotaxis. Even-Faitelson, L., Rosenberg, M., Ravid, S. Cell. Signal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytoplasmic myosin from Drosophila melanogaster. Kiehart, D.P., Feghali, R. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Crystal structures of human cardiac beta-myosin II S2-{Delta} provide insight into the functional role of the S2 subfragment. Blankenfeldt, W., Thom??, N.H., Wray, J.S., Gautel, M., Schlichting, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification and overlapping expression of multiple unconventional myosin genes in vertebrate cell types. Bement, W.M., Hasson, T., Wirth, J.A., Cheney, R.E., Mooseker, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Role for actin filament turnover and a myosin II motor in cytoskeleton-driven disassembly of the epithelial apical junctional complex. Ivanov, A.I., McCall, I.C., Parkos, C.A., Nusrat, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Calyculin-A, an inhibitor for protein phosphatases, induces cortical contraction in unfertilized sea urchin eggs. Asano, Y., Mabuchi, I. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of myosin and heavy meromyosin on actin-related gelation of HeLa cell extracts. Weihing, R.R. J. Cell Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Paxillin LD4 motif binds PAK and PIX through a novel 95-kD ankyrin repeat, ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling. Turner, C.E., Brown, M.C., Perrotta, J.A., Riedy, M.C., Nikolopoulos, S.N., McDonald, A.R., Bagrodia, S., Thomas, S., Leventhal, P.S. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Myosin light chain kinase functions downstream of Ras/ERK to promote migration of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-stimulated cells in an integrin-selective manner. Nguyen, D.H., Catling, A.D., Webb, D.J., Sankovic, M., Walker, L.A., Somlyo, A.V., Weber, M.J., Gonias, S.L. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Metalloendoprotease inhibitors that block fusion also prevent biochemical differentiation in L6 myoblasts. Baldwin, E., Kayalar, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of myosin in HeLa cells causes redistribution of focal adhesions and F-actin from cell center to cell periphery. Szczepanowska, J., Korn, E.D., Brzeska, H. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Human brush border myosin-I and myosin-Ic expression in human intestine and Caco-2BBe cells. Skowron, J.F., Bement, W.M., Mooseker, M.S. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Formation of a WIP-, WASp-, actin-, and myosin IIA-containing multiprotein complex in activated NK cells and its alteration by KIR inhibitory signaling. Krzewski, K., Chen, X., Orange, J.S., Strominger, J.L. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of a myosin VII-talin complex. Tuxworth, R.I., Stephens, S., Ryan, Z.C., Titus, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of a nonpolymerizable actin mutant in Sf9 cells. Joel, P.B., Fagnant, P.M., Trybus, K.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
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