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Gene Review

YWHAZ  -  tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta, 14-3-3-zeta, HEL-S-3, HEL4, KCIP-1, ...
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Disease relevance of YWHAZ


Psychiatry related information on YWHAZ


High impact information on YWHAZ


Biological context of YWHAZ


Anatomical context of YWHAZ


Associations of YWHAZ with chemical compounds

  • While a protein kinase C inhibitor (GF109203X, 10 microM) was without effect, an intracellular free Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM, 50 microM) suppressed UTP-mediated IL-6 induction [22].
  • In a previous study, we elucidated that the 31 kDa antigen belonged to a family of proteins collectively designated as 14-3-3 proteins, which were known as protein kinase-dependent activators of tyrosine/trytophan hydroxylases, or protein kinase C inhibitor proteins [23].
  • METHODS: A549 cells were stimulated with IL-1beta in the presence or absence of H-7 (a protein kinase C inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor) and PD098059 (a mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinase kinase (MEK1) inhibitor) [24].
  • Conversely, the selective protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C did not block D1 dopamine receptor-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK and JNK [25].
  • Staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor, blocked GVBD and the activation of M-phase-specific H1 kinase, whereas HA1004, which preferentially antagonizes protein kinase A, had no effect [26].

Enzymatic interactions of YWHAZ


Regulatory relationships of YWHAZ


Other interactions of YWHAZ


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of YWHAZ

  • This 190-kDa peptide was reacted with anti-BPA II monoclonal antibodies by immunoblotting, and it was not detected when cells were pretreated with a specific protein kinase C inhibitor (H7) before TPA treatment, suggesting that the 190 kDa peptide is phosphorylated BPAII with TPA [35].
  • Key words for the literature search were 'diabetic', 'retinopathy', 'treatment', 'laser photocoagulation', 'vitrectomy', 'corticosteroid', 'protein kinase C inhibitor', and 'VEGF inhibitor'. DATA EXTRACTION [36].


  1. Bisindolylmaleimide I Suppresses Fibroblast Growth Factor-mediated Activation of Erk MAP Kinase in Chondrocytes by Preventing Shp2 Association with the Frs2 and Gab1 Adaptor Proteins. Krejci, P., Masri, B., Salazar, L., Farrington-Rock, C., Prats, H., Thompson, L.M., Wilcox, W.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine chloride induces tumor cell toxicity and growth delay in vivo. Chmura, S.J., Dolan, M.E., Cha, A., Mauceri, H.J., Kufe, D.W., Weichselbaum, R.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Priming by grepafloxacin on respiratory burst of human neutrophils: its possible mechanism. Niwa, M., Kanamori, Y., Hotta, K., Matsuno, H., Kozawa, O., Fujimoto, S., Uematsu, T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of the new selective protein kinase C inhibitor 4'-N-benzoyl staurosporine on cell cycle distribution and growth inhibition in human small cell lung cancer cells. Ikegami, Y., Yano, S., Nakao, K. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. 17beta-estradiol antagonizes the down-regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and GTP cyclohydrolase I by high glucose: relevance to postmenopausal diabetic cardiovascular disease. Miyazaki-Akita, A., Hayashi, T., Ding, Q.F., Shiraishi, H., Nomura, T., Hattori, Y., Iguchi, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. An association study between polymorphisms in three genes of 14-3-3 (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein) family and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Chinese population. Jia, Y., Yu, X., Zhang, B., Yuan, Y., Xu, Q., Shen, Y., Shen, Y. Eur. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor defects in leprechaunism. A multiple growth factor-resistant syndrome. Reddy, S.S., Kahn, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. A short-lived nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the human ets-2 proto-oncogene is stabilized by activation of protein kinase C. Fujiwara, S., Fisher, R.J., Bhat, N.K., Diaz de la Espina, S.M., Papas, T.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene expression preferentially regulated by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and correlations with clinical outcome. Frasor, J., Chang, E.C., Komm, B., Lin, C.Y., Vega, V.B., Liu, E.T., Miller, L.D., Smeds, J., Bergh, J., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The protein kinase C inhibitor Gö6976 is a potent inhibitor of DNA damage-induced S and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. Kohn, E.A., Yoo, C.J., Eastman, A. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Thrombin activates two stress-activated protein kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, in HepG2 cells. Mitsui, H., Maruyama, T., Kimura, S., Takuwa, Y. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Human IL-3 receptor signaling: rapid induction of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis is independent of protein kinase C but dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation in transfected NIH 3T3 cells. Rao, P., Kitamura, T., Miyajima, A., Mufson, R.A. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma and leukemia cells independently of p53. Shao, R.G., Shimizu, T., Pommier, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of housekeeping genes in placental comparative expression studies. Meller, M., Vadachkoria, S., Luthy, D.A., Williams, M.A. Placenta (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced p47phox phosphorylation in human neutrophils. Dewas, C., Fay, M., Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A., El-Benna, J. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple hemopoietins, with the exception of interleukin-4, induce modification of Shc and mSos1, but not their translocation. Welham, M.J., Duronio, V., Leslie, K.B., Bowtell, D., Schrader, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-5 activate mitogen-activated protein kinase through Jak2 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in human eosinophils. Hiraguri, M., Miike, S., Sano, H., Kurasawa, K., Saito, Y., Iwamoto, I. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of a protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7, on human neutrophil oxidative burst and degranulation. Berkow, R.L., Dodson, R.W., Kraft, A.S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. PMA-induced activation of the p42/44ERK- and p38RK-MAP kinase cascades in HL-60 cells is PKC dependent but not essential for differentiation to the macrophage-like phenotype. Schultz, H., Engel, K., Gaestel, M. J. Cell. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. UCN-01 induces cytotoxicity toward human CLL cells through a p53-independent mechanism. Byrd, J.C., Shinn, C., Willis, C.R., Flinn, I.W., Lehman, T., Sausville, E., Lucas, D., Grever, M.R. Exp. Hematol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. A novel cyathane diterpene, cyrneine A, induces neurite outgrowth in a Rac1-dependent mechanism in PC12 cells. Obara, Y., Hoshino, T., Marcotullio, M.C., Pagiotti, R., Nakahata, N. Life Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. ATP stimulates interleukin-6 production via P2Y receptors in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Yoshida, H., Kobayashi, D., Ohkubo, S., Nakahata, N. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of the 31 kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2, as an antigen recognized by the lung cancer-specific human monoclonal antibody, AE6F4. Kawamoto, S., Shoji, M., Setoguchi, Y., Kato, M., Hashizume, S., Ichikawa, A., Osada, K., Katakura, Y., Tachibana, H., Murakami, H. Cytotechnology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of PKC, p38 MAPK and AP-2 in IL-1beta-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells. Chen, P., Cai, Y., Yang, Z.G., Zhou, R., Zhang, G.S., Domann, F., Fang, X. Respirology (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. D1 dopamine receptor agonists mediate activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Zhen, X., Uryu, K., Wang, H.Y., Friedman, E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of M-phase progression in Chaetopterus oocytes by protein kinase C. Eckberg, W.R., Palazzo, R.E. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Phorbol ester inhibits granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Gomez-Cambronero, J., Huang, C.K., Yamazaki, M., Wang, E., Molski, T.F., Becker, E.L., Sha'afi, R.I. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. The protein kinase C inhibitor ilmofosine (BM 41 440) arrests cells in G2 phase and suppresses CDC2 kinase activation through a mechanism different from that of DNA damaging agents. Hofmann, J., O'Connor, P.M., Jackman, J., Schubert, C., Ueberall, F., Kohn, K.W., Grunicke, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Induction of tumor suppressor p21 protein by kinase inhibitors in MCF-7 cells. Jeoung, D.I., Tang, B., Sonenberg, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Spinsanti, G., Panti, C., Lazzeri, E., Marsili, L., Casini, S., Frati, F., Fossi, C.M. BMC Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression by p53-independent pathways. Zeng, Y.X., el-Deiry, W.S. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. In vitro prevention of the emergence of multidrug resistance in a pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Cocker, H.A., Tiffin, N., Pritchard-Jones, K., Pinkerton, C.R., Kelland, L.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Ultraviolet B-mediated phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein HSP27 in human keratinocytes. Wong, J.W., Shi, B., Farboud, B., McClaren, M., Shibamoto, T., Cross, C.E., Isseroff, R.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. TNF-alpha enhances intracellular glucocorticoid availability. Heiniger, C.D., Rochat, M.K., Frey, F.J., Frey, B.M. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. A hemidesmosomal transmembrane collagenous molecule, the 180-kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA II), is phosphorylated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (DJM-1). Kitajima, Y., Owada, M.K., Fujisawa, Y., Seishima, M., Yaoita, H., Hirako, Y., Owaribe, K. Epithelial cell biology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Update on the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Yam, J.C., Kwok, A.K.h. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine (2007) [Pubmed]
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