The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

LYVE1  -  lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CRSBP-1, CRSBP1, Cell surface retention sequence-binding protein 1, Extracellular link domain-containing protein 1, HAR, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of XLKD1


Psychiatry related information on XLKD1

  • This study modeled the influences of cortisol reactivity, androgens, age-corrected pubertal status, parental personality, family and peer dysfunction on behavioral self-regulation (BSR), in boys at high (HAR) and low average risk (LAR) for substance abuse [6].
  • Preadolescent children (ages 10-12 years) of fathers with SUD considered at high average risk (HAR; n=274) and children of fathers without SUD or major psychopathology considered at low average risk (LAR; n=298) participated in structured interviews to determine mental disorder diagnoses and substance use history [7].

High impact information on XLKD1


Chemical compound and disease context of XLKD1


Biological context of XLKD1

  • The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily [10].
  • LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels and CD31-positive blood vessels were significantly reduced in corneal wound healing in diabetic mice (db/db) (P < 0.02) compared with control (db/+) mice [13].
  • These results suggest that CRSBP-1 plays a role in autocrine regulation of cell growth mediated by growth regulators containing CRS [14].
  • Cell surface retention sequence binding protein-1 (CRSBP-1) is a cell surface binding protein for the cell surface retention sequence (CRS) motif of the v-sis gene product (platelet-derived growth factor-BB) [14].
  • CRSBP-1 overexpression (by stable transfection of cells with CRSBP-1 cDNA) enhances autocrine loop signaling, cell growth, and tumorigenicity (in mice) of v-sis-transformed cells [14].

Anatomical context of XLKD1

  • Indeed, LYVE-1 is also present in normal hepatic blood sinusoidal endothelial cells in mice and humans [2].
  • Most of the SC in both early and late KS expressed the lymphatic markers LYVE-1, D2-40 and VEGFR-3 and the blood vascular endothelial/endothelial precursor cell markers CD34 and endothelial stem cell marker VEGFR-2 [15].
  • LYVE-1 immunoreactivity, however, was found in the dense network of perivascular HLA-DR-positive cells with dendritic cell morphology that are supposed to play a role in hemangiogenesis by releasing pro- and antiangiogenic factors [3].
  • The LE cells were isolated and marked using specific markers, such as VEGFR-3 and LYVE-1, before experimental studies [16].
  • Recently, however, a number of interesting molecules have been identified that may be exploited as markers for lymphatic endothelium, including the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, the subject of this review [17].

Associations of XLKD1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of XLKD1

  • Together these results suggest a role for LYVE-1 in the transport of HA from tissue to lymph and imply that further novel hyaluronan receptors must exist that can compensate for the loss of CD44 function [20].

Regulatory relationships of XLKD1

  • These findings indicate that the occurrence of LYVE-1-expressing lymphatic compartments and the alteration of CCL21 expression in the lymphatics may be involved in defective thymocyte differentiation and migration, and play a significant role in insulitic and diabetic processes [21].
  • We have isolated primary lymphatic and blood microvascular endothelial cells from human skin by immunoselection with the lymphatic marker LYVE-1 and demonstrate that the two cell lineages express distinct sets of vascular markers and respond differently to growth factors and extracellular matrix [22].

Other interactions of XLKD1

  • Our results show absent or diminished expression of the lymphatic markers Prox-1 and podoplanin in the enlarged jugular sac, while LYVE-1 expression was normal [23].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that quantitative analysis of lymphangiogenic marker VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in gastroenteric specimens may be useful in predicting metastasis of gastroenteric cancer to regional lymph nodes, but the role of LYVE-1 in predicting metastasis of gastroenteric cancer requires further analysis [1].
  • In addition, VEGF-C expression correlated well with LYVE-1 expression (r=0.611; P<0.0001) [24].
  • In the hepatic sinuses, LYVE-1 and CD36 were strongly up-regulated on both sinusoidal ECs and Mvarphi, while DC-SIGNR and DC-SIGN were strongly down-regulated; in contrast to lymph node sinusoidal ECs, MARCO was confined to Mvarphi (Kupffer cells) in the liver sinuses [25].
  • To address this important issue, the present study investigated the lymphatics in primary human breast carcinoma (75 cases of invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer) by quantitative immunohistochemical staining for the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, the blood vascular marker CD34, and the nuclear proliferation marker pKi67 [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of XLKD1

  • Immunofluorescence double staining showed that the CD31-positive microvascular density was increased but that staining for the lymphatic-specific hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 was drastically diminished in lesional compared with nonlesional skin of the patient and with normal skin [27].
  • However, in comparison to the 0.5-month biopsy, density of LYVE-1 and PROX-1 positive lymphatics was significantly decreased at 1 month after transplantation (p<0.03) and at the subsequent time points (p<0.01) [28].
  • In conclusion, in the ex vivo situation, the efficacy of hDAF transgenesis in preventing HAR is limited by serum complement concentration [29].
  • LYVE-1 antisera, but not control pre-immune sera, recognized LYVE-1-transfected 293T cells by flow cytometry [30].
  • By RTQ-PCR amplification, LYVE-1 was highly expressed in colorectal specimens and LYVE-1 signal from non-cancer tissue of normal control was much weaker by conventional RTPCR [31].


  1. Quantitative analysis of lymphangiogenic markers in human gastroenteric tumor. Yuanming, L., Feng, G., Lei, T., Ying, W. Arch. Med. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. LYVE-1 is not restricted to the lymph vessels: expression in normal liver blood sinusoids and down-regulation in human liver cancer and cirrhosis. Mouta Carreira, C., Nasser, S.M., di Tomaso, E., Padera, T.P., Boucher, Y., Tomarev, S.I., Jain, R.K. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Infantile hemangioma is a proliferation of LYVE-1-negative blood endothelial cells without lymphatic competence. Nguyen, V.A., Kutzner, H., Fürhapter, C., Tzankov, A., Sepp, N. Mod. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Lymphangiogenesis quantification using quantitative PCR and breast cancer as a model. Cunnick, G.H., Jiang, W.G., Gomez, K.F., Mansel, R.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Suppression of VEGFR-3 signaling inhibits lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Shimizu, K., Kubo, H., Yamaguchi, K., Kawashima, K., Ueda, Y., Matsuo, K., Awane, M., Shimahara, Y., Takabayashi, A., Yamaoka, Y., Satoh, S. Cancer Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Hormonal and behavioral homeostasis in boys at risk for substance abuse. Dawes, M.A., Dorn, L.D., Moss, H.B., Yao, J.K., Kirisci, L., Ammerman, R.T., Tarter, R.E. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Childhood psychopathology and adolescent cigarette smoking: a prospective survival analysis in children at high risk for substance use disorders. Clark, D.B., Cornelius, J. Addictive behaviors. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of tumor lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C promotes breast cancer metastasis. Skobe, M., Hawighorst, T., Jackson, D.G., Prevo, R., Janes, L., Velasco, P., Riccardi, L., Alitalo, K., Claffey, K., Detmar, M. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterization of dermal lymphatic and blood endothelial cells reveal stable and functionally specialized cell lineages. Kriehuber, E., Breiteneder-Geleff, S., Groeger, M., Soleiman, A., Schoppmann, S.F., Stingl, G., Kerjaschki, D., Maurer, D. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan. Banerji, S., Ni, J., Wang, S.X., Clasper, S., Su, J., Tammi, R., Jones, M., Jackson, D.G. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 induce lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Björndahl, M., Cao, R., Nissen, L.J., Clasper, S., Johnson, L.A., Xue, Y., Zhou, Z., Jackson, D., Hansen, A.J., Cao, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Cholesterol gallstone induction in hamsters reflects strain differences in plasma lipoproteins and bile acid profiles. Trautwein, E.A., Liang, J., Hayes, K.C. Lipids (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased macrophage number and activation lead to reduced lymphatic vessel formation and contribute to impaired diabetic wound healing. Maruyama, K., Asai, J., Ii, M., Thorne, T., Losordo, D.W., D'Amore, P.A. Am. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning, expression, characterization, and role in autocrine cell growth of cell surface retention sequence binding protein-1. Huang, S.S., Tang, F.M., Huang, Y.H., Liu, I.H., Hsu, S.C., Chen, S.T., Huang, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Lymphatic and vascular origin of Kaposi's sarcoma spindle cells during tumor development. Pyakurel, P., Pak, F., Mwakigonja, A.R., Kaaya, E., Heiden, T., Biberfeld, P. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of IFN- alpha and IFN- gamma on lymphangiogenesis. Shao, X., Liu, C. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The lymphatics revisited: new perspectives from the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1. Jackson, D.G. Trends Cardiovasc. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Tumor lymphangiogenesis in inflammatory breast carcinoma: a histomorphometric study. Van der Auwera, I., Van den Eynden, G.G., Colpaert, C.G., Van Laere, S.J., van Dam, P., Van Marck, E.A., Dirix, L.Y., Vermeulen, P.B. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Lymphatic endothelium-specific hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is expressed by stabilin-1+, F4/80+, CD11b+ macrophages in malignant tumours and wound healing tissue in vivo and in bone marrow cultures in vitro: implications for the assessment of lymphangiogenesis. Schledzewski, K., Falkowski, M., Moldenhauer, G., Metharom, P., Kzhyshkowska, J., Ganss, R., Demory, A., Falkowska-Hansen, B., Kurzen, H., Ugurel, S., Geginat, G., Arnold, B., Goerdt, S. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Mouse LYVE-1 is an endocytic receptor for hyaluronan in lymphatic endothelium. Prevo, R., Banerji, S., Ferguson, D.J., Clasper, S., Jackson, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Lymphatic vascular endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1- and CCL21-positive lymphatic compartments in the diabetic thymus. Ji, R.C., Kurihara, K., Kato, S. Anatomical science international / Japanese Association of Anatomists (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells. Podgrabinska, S., Braun, P., Velasco, P., Kloos, B., Pepper, M.S., Skobe, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Nuchal edema and venous-lymphatic phenotype disturbance in human fetuses and mouse embryos with aneuploidy. Bekker, M.N., van den Akker, N.M., Bartelings, M.M., Arkesteijn, J.B., Fischer, S.G., Polman, J.A., Haak, M.C., Webb, S., Poelmann, R.E., van Vugt, J.M., Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Vascular endothelial growth factor C mRNA expression correlates with stage of progression in patients with melanoma. Goydos, J.S., Gorski, D.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential expression of a gene signature for scavenger/lectin receptors by endothelial cells and macrophages in human lymph node sinuses, the primary sites of regional metastasis. Martens, J.H., Kzhyshkowska, J., Falkowski-Hansen, M., Schledzewski, K., Gratchev, A., Mansmann, U., Schmuttermaier, C., Dippel, E., Koenen, W., Riedel, F., Sankala, M., Tryggvason, K., Kobzik, L., Moldenhauer, G., Arnold, B., Goerdt, S. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Absence of lymphangiogenesis and intratumoural lymph vessels in human metastatic breast cancer. Williams, C.S., Leek, R.D., Robson, A.M., Banerji, S., Prevo, R., Harris, A.L., Jackson, D.G. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. A failure of mucocutaneous lymphangiogenesis may underlie the clinical features of lipoid proteinosis. Uchida, T., Hayashi, H., Inaoki, M., Miyamoto, T., Fujimoto, W. Br. J. Dermatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. First year changes of myocardial lymphatic endothelial markers in heart transplant recipients. Geissler, H.J., Dashkevich, A., Fischer, U.M., Fries, J.W., Kuhn-Régnier, F., Addicks, K., Mehlhorn, U., Bloch, W. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Contrast in the efficacy of hDAF mouse hearts between ex vivo perfusion and transplantation into primates. Verbakel, C.A., de Bruin, R.W., Bonthuis, F., Jonker, M., Dekker, S., Marquet, R.L., IJzermans, J.N. Xenotransplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic immunization with LYVE-1 cDNA yields function-blocking antibodies against native protein. Cardones, A.R., Leitner, W.W., Fang, L., Murakami, T., Kapoor, V., Udey, M.C., Hwang, S.T. Microvasc. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression and quantification of LYVE-1 in human colorectal cancer. Gao, F., Lu, Y.M., Cao, M.L., Liu, Y.W., He, Y.Q., Wang, Y. Clin. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities