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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tonsillitis


High impact information on Tonsillitis


Chemical compound and disease context of Tonsillitis


Biological context of Tonsillitis


Anatomical context of Tonsillitis


Gene context of Tonsillitis

  • ENA-78 does not seem to play a pivotal role in tonsillitis in vivo [24].
  • No significant differences were observed when comparing the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing cells between cell suspensions obtained from hyperplastic and tonsillitis specimens [25].
  • In tissue sections from tonsils in a resting stage after recurrent tonsillitis we observed cells producing IL-1 alpha and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) which were exclusively localized in the mantle zone of the follicle and in the extrafollicular area [26].
  • Effect of tonsillectomy on serum concentrations of interleukins and TNF-alpha in patients with chronic tonsillitis [27].
  • Activation by S. pyogenes A bacteria gave rise to higher frequencies of IFN-gamma- and TNF-beta-synthesizing cells in the recurrent tonsillitis group [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tonsillitis


  1. Diphtheria carriers in Manchester: simultaneous infection with toxigenic and non-toxigenic mitis strains. Simmons, L.E., Abbott, J.D., Macaulay, M.E., Jones, A.E., Ironside, A.G., Mandal, B.K., Stanbridge, T.N., Maximescu, P. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Loracarbef versus penicillin VK in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis in an adult population. McCarty, J. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Telithromycin. Balfour, J.A., Figgitt, D.P. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Penicillin tolerance in Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. Nyman, M., Banck, G., Thore, M. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Penetration of temafloxacin into body tissues and fluids. Sörgel, F. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Simultaneous, clonally identical T cell expansion in tonsil and synovium in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic tonsillitis. Kawano, M., Okada, K., Muramoto, H., Morishita, H., Omura, T., Inoue, R., Kitajima, S., Katano, K., Koni, I., Mabuchi, H., Yachie, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Efficacy of penicillin versus cefdinir in eradication of group A streptococci and tonsillar flora. Brook, I., Foote, P.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cefdinir: a review of its use in the management of mild-to-moderate bacterial infections. Perry, C.M., Scott, L.J. Drugs (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Cefetamet pivoxil in the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis in children and adults. Guggenbichler, J.P. Drugs (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Loracarbef. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Brogden, R.N., McTavish, D. Drugs (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Penetration of cefprozil into tonsillar and adenoidal tissues. Shyu, W.C., Reilly, J., Campbell, D.A., Wilber, R.B., Barbhaiya, R.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Tonsillar penetration of erythromycin and its 2'-acetyl ester in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Savolainen, S., Männistö, P.T., Gordin, A., Antikainen, R., Haataja, H., Tuominen, R.K., Ylikoski, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of patients with acute recurrent tonsillitis due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococci: a prospective randomized study comparing penicillin and amoxycillin/clavulanate potassium. Brook, I. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Group A Streptococci from carriage and disease in Portugal: evolution of antimicrobial resistance and T antigenic types during 2000-2002. Pires, R., Rolo, D., Gama-Norton, L., Morais, A., Lito, L., Salgado, M.J., Johansson, C., Möllerberg, G., Henriques-Normark, B., Gonçalo-Marques, J., Santos-Sanches, I. Microb. Drug Resist. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Free radicals and scavenging enzymes in chronic tonsillitis. Kaygusuz, I., Ilhan, N., Karlidag, T., Keles, E., Yalçin, S., Cetiner, H. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidant and antioxidant levels in children with acute otitis media and tonsillitis: a comparative study. Cemek, M., Dede, S., Bayiroğlu, F., Caksen, H., Cemek, F., Yuca, K. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute tonsillitis. Kosugi, T., Hamaya, M., Matsuo, O., Mihara, H. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Suitability of cefotiam and cefuroxime axetil for the perioperative short-term prophylaxis in tonsillectomy patients. Müller, R., Böttger, C., Wichmann, G. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Penicillin concentrations in sera and tonsils after intramuscular administration of benzathine penicillin G to children. Peloso, U.C., De Souza, J.C., Botino, M.A., Miniti, A. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Detection of IL-2 receptor positive tonsillar lymphocytes by monoclonal antibody and protein A coated erythrocytes. Plum, J., Van Cauwenberge, P., De Smedt, M. Immunol. Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Melatonin restores and enhances the human type B tonsillar lymphocyte subset in recurrent acute tonsillitis. Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A., Guerrero, J.M., Sanchez, B., Delgado, F. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Investigation of antioxidant status in children with acute otitis media and tonsillitis. Cemek, M., Caksen, H., Cemek, F., Bayiroğlu, F., Dede, S., Dülger, H., Ustün, R. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. CD48 expression on leukocytes in infectious diseases: flow cytometric analysis of surface antigen. Katsuura, M., Shimizu, Y., Akiba, K., Kanazawa, C., Mitsui, T., Sendo, D., Kawakami, T., Hayasaka, K., Yokoyama, S. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils. Sachse, F., Ahlers, F., Stoll, W., Rudack, C. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. High frequency of spontaneous interferon-gamma-producing cells in human tonsils: role of local accessory cells and soluble factors. Quiding, M., Granström, G., Nordström, I., Ferrua, B., Holmgren, J., Czerkinsky, C. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunohistochemical detection of co-localizing cytokine and antibody producing cells in the extrafollicular area of human palatine tonsils. Hoefakker, S., van 't Erve, E.H., Deen, C., van den Eertwegh, A.J., Boersma, W.J., Notten, W.R., Claassen, E. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of tonsillectomy on serum concentrations of interleukins and TNF-alpha in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Unal, M., Oztürk, C., Görür, K. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pyogenes group A challenge induce a Th1 type of cytokine response in cells obtained from tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis. Agren, K., Brauner, A., Andersson, J. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinical efficacy of dirithromycin in pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Müller, O., Wettich, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Therapy for pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci: a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of cefadroxil monohydrate versus oral penicillin V. Deeter, R.G., Kalman, D.L., Rogan, M.P., Chow, S.C. Clinical therapeutics. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Biologically active neutrophil chemokine pattern in tonsillitis. Rudack, C., Jörg, S., Sachse, F. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled study of benzydamine oral rinse ("Difflam") in general practice. Whiteside, M.W. Current medical research and opinion. (1982) [Pubmed]
  33. A case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis in Lebanon. Darwish, M.J., Armenian, H.K. International journal of epidemiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
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