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Chemical Compound Review

AURAMINE     4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl) carbonimidoyl]-N...

Synonyms: Blauramine, Glauramine, Auramine SS, Auramine OAF, CCRIS 58, ...
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Disease relevance of Auramine O

  • Tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Ziehl-Neelsen, auramine O, and Kinyoun stains and were examined for granuloma formation and acid-fast bacilli [1].
  • Intracellular oxidation of the free radical-sensitive reporter compound dichlorofluorescin diacetate was increased in yeast cultures exposed to benzene, urethane and auramine O; again, the Salmonella mutagens had no effect on oxidation of the dye [2].
  • The toxicity and recombinagenicity of thiourea and auramine O was reduced in the presence of the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine [2].
  • We describe the simple adaptation of a standard fluorescent microscope for illumination using a 'Royal Blue' Luxeon light emitting diode (LED) and demonstrate that this form of illumination is suitable for the detection of auramine O stained Mycobacterium spp [3].
  • Three additional techniques (Ziehl-Neelsen, auramine O/rhodamine and immunostaining using polyclonal anti-Mycobacterium bovis) to hematoxylin-eosin histopathology were evaluated for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis on 39 samples from several slaughterhouses [4].

High impact information on Auramine O

  • Here, neutrophils in autologous plasma were incubated (at 0 and 37 degrees C) with M. avium labeled with Auramine O, a potent fluorochrome [5].
  • Triplet-singlet energy transfer in the complex of auramine O with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase [6].
  • Titrations of this fluorescence enhancement indicated that actin monomer had two auramine O binding sites, each with a dissociation constant of approx. 20 microM [7].
  • The routine use of cytocentrifugation for concentrating sputum specimens increases the cost of smear preparation but does not increase detection of AFB by auramine O staining; however, it would be useful in handling emergent requests for AFB smears [8].
  • Reticulocytes are detected as fluorescent cells stained with a basic dye, auramine O, under argon-laser light [9].

Biological context of Auramine O


Anatomical context of Auramine O


Associations of Auramine O with other chemical compounds

  • A cationic fluorescent dye, auramine O (AO), exhibited an intense increase in fluorescence after binding to human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AG) [19].
  • 2,2'-Bipyridine, which chelates the active-site zinc ion in the native enzyme, is bound rather loosely to the same site as aldehydes, auramine O and ethylberberine in the case of the zinc-depleted enzyme [20].
  • 4. The results, combined with previously reported data for decanoate binding to the enzyme X NAD+ complex, provide clear evidence that carboxylates (in contrast to auramine O) are bound at the active-site zinc ion of the enzyme in a process by the ionization state of zinc-bound water [21].
  • The zinc-deficient enzyme binds the fluorescence probes for the enzyme substrate pocket (auramine O, 13-ethylberberine, chlorprothixene and acridine orange) more tightly than the native enzyme, whereas 1-anilinonaphthalene 8-sulphonic acid is bound with comparable affinity [20].
  • The use of auramine O to study ligand binding and subunit cooperativity of lactate dehydrogenase [22].

Gene context of Auramine O

  • Auramine O as a conformational probe to study glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [23].
  • The tetrameric molecule of pig skeletal muscle lactate dehydrogenase binds a cationic fluorescent probe, auramine O, at four equal non-interacting sites with a dissociation constant of (1.25 +/- 0.2) X 10(-4) M [22].
  • We attempted to develop a fluorescent probe superior to conventional ones (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate and auramine O) for use in the study of drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) [24].
  • Neonatal diarrhea was an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a hand-rearing facility for exotic ruminants at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Studies undertaken to determine the causes of the problem revealed that oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. were demonstrable in auramine O stained fecal smears from 52 of 183 (28.4%) animals examined [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Auramine O


  1. Comparison of PCR, culture, and histopathology for diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis. Cegielski, J.P., Devlin, B.H., Morris, A.J., Kitinya, J.N., Pulipaka, U.P., Lema, L.E., Lwakatare, J., Reller, L.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Free radicals generated in yeast by the Salmonella test-negative carcinogens benzene, urethane, thiourea and auramine O. Brennan, R.J., Schiestl, R.H. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Light emitting diodes for auramine O fluorescence microscopic screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Anthony, R.M., Kolk, A.H., Kuijper, S., Klatser, P.R. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of three diagnostic detection methods for tuberculosis in French cattle. Watrelot-Virieux, D., Drevon-Gaillot, E., Toussaint, Y., Belli, P. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Phagocytosis and killing of Mycobacterium avium complex by human neutrophils. Hartmann, P., Becker, R., Franzen, C., Schell-Frederick, E., Römer, J., Jacobs, M., Fätkenheuer, G., Plum, G. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Triplet-singlet energy transfer in the complex of auramine O with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Weers, J.G., Maki, A.H. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. The binding of Ca2+ to actin monomer is monitored by the fluorescence of actin-bound auramine O. Tellam, R.L., Turner, J.A. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Concentration of sputum by cytocentrifugation for preparation of smears for detection of acid-fast bacilli does not increase sensitivity of the fluorochrome stain. Woods, G.L., Pentony, E., Boxley, M.J., Gatson, A.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. An automated optoelectronic reticulocyte counter. Kojima, K., Niri, M., Setoguchi, K., Tsuda, I., Tatsumi, N. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Study on development of Agaricus bisporus by fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Saksena, K.N., Marino, R., Haller, M.N., Lemke, P.A. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Dose-response relationship for rat liver DNA damage caused by 49 rodent carcinogens. Kitchin, K.T., Brown, J.L. Toxicology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Membrane properties of an extreme thermophile. II. Membrane functions underlying leucine transport and their relation with thermotropic phase transitions. Wakayama, N. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Catalytic influence of heparin on auramine O hydrolysis: a basis for differentiating heparin from other glycosaminoglycans based on its properties as a polyelectrolyte. Band, P., Lukton, A. Biopolymers (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Reticulocyte counting in thalassaemia. Paterakis, G.S. Clinical and laboratory haematology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunofluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal smears. Stibbs, H.H., Ongerth, J.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Cryptosporidiosis and turkey viral hepatitis in turkeys. Wages, D.P., Ficken, M.D. Avian Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. DNA damage induced by auramine O in liver, kidney, and bone marrow of rats and mice, and in a human cell line (alkaline elution assay and SCE induction). Parodi, S., Santi, L., Russo, P., Albini, A., Vecchio, D., Pala, M., Ottaggio, L., Carbone, A. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth of some mycobacterial strains in 7H12 Middlebrook liquid medium in the presence of auramine. Botis, S., Koemoth, P.P., Correa de Brito, J.M., Brock, M. Revista de igienă, bacteriologie, virusologie, parazitologie, epidemiologie, pneumoftiziologie. Pneumoftiziologia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Auramine O as a fluorescent probe for the binding of basic drugs to human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AG). The development of a simple fluorometric method for the determination of alpha 1-AG in human serum. Sugiyama, Y., Suzuki, Y., Sawada, Y., Kawasaki, S., Beppu, T., Iga, T., Hanano, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Binding of ligands to horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase lacking zinc ions at the active sites. Kovár, J., Matyska, L., Zeppezauer, M., Maret, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Synergism between coenzyme and carboxylate binding to liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Andersson, P., Kvassman, J., Oldén, B., Pettersson, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. The use of auramine O to study ligand binding and subunit cooperativity of lactate dehydrogenase. Ivanov, M.V., Kube, D., Nagradova, N.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Auramine O as a conformational probe to study glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Ivanov, M.V., Klichko, V.I., Nikulin, I.R., Asryants, R.A., Nagradova, N.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of quinaldine red as a fluorescent probe for studies of drug-alpha 1-acid glycoprotein interaction. Imamura, H., Maruyama, T., Otagiri, M. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Cryptosporidial infections in captive wild animals. Heuschele, W.P., Oosterhuis, J., Janssen, D., Robinson, P.T., Ensley, P.K., Meier, J.E., Olson, T., Anderson, M.P., Benirschke, K. J. Wildl. Dis. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in serum and urine samples. Phillips, A., Rowell, F.J. Clin. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. VII. Absence of mycobacteria in southeastern groundwaters. Martin, E.C., Parker, B.C., Falkinham, J.O. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. A case of Mycobacterium avium infection: early detection by the auramine-O fluorescent technique. Nussbaum, E., Abramowsky, C. Clinical pediatrics. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Human reticulocytes isolated from peripheral blood: maturation time and hemoglobin synthesis. Skadberg, O., Brun, A., Sandberg, S. Laboratory hematology : official publication of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. New fluorescence reactions in DNA cytochemistry. 1. Microscopic and spectroscopic studies on nonrigid fluorochromes. Stockert, J.C., Del Castillo, P., Llorente, A.R., Rasskin, D.M., Romero, J.B., Gómez, A. Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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