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Chemical Compound Review

PTERIDINE     pteridine

Synonyms: Pteridene, Azinepurine, pteridine-ring, SureCN7626, AGN-PC-0CW4QN, ...
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Disease relevance of pteridine


Psychiatry related information on pteridine


High impact information on pteridine


Chemical compound and disease context of pteridine


Biological context of pteridine

  • Structural similarities were identified between this protein and several enzymes that should contain similar nucleotide and pteridine binding sites [17].
  • Changes in the length of the polyglutamate side chain and alterations of the pteridine structure such as reduction and/or methylation have a much larger effect on the constant for binding to deoxyhemoglobin tetramers than on that for oxyhemoglobin dimers [18].
  • The pteridine binding site of brain nitric oxide synthase. Tetrahydrobiopterin binding kinetics, specificity, and allosteric interaction with the substrate domain [19].
  • Coronary endothelial dysfunction in the insulin-resistant state is linked to abnormal pteridine metabolism and vascular oxidative stress [20].
  • Furthermore, an inhibitor of a terminal step in pteridine biosynthesis produced an identical phenotype [21].

Anatomical context of pteridine


Associations of pteridine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pteridine

  • A direct role for IDO in pteridine synthesis has not been shown, and this parallel induction may reflect coordinate regulation of genes induced by IFN-gamma [29].
  • The carbohydrate moiety of the orosomucoid (ORM) molecule shows microheterogeneity [1] and the pteridine-containing variant seems to be tumor-specific [2-4] [30].
  • This water molecule, not observed in previously determined DHFR structures, is positioned to complete a proposed route for proton transfer from the side-chain carboxylate of E30 to N5 of the pteridine ring [31].
  • The pteridine tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a key feature of NOS, affecting dimerisation and electron transfer, although its full role in catalysis remains to be determined [32].
  • The loading regimen was also used to gauge the response of mutant hyperphenylalaninemic mice to exposure to chemical compounds required for normal phenylalanine catabolism (i.e. pteridine cofactors of the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pteridine


  1. Probing the salt bridge in the dihydrofolate reductase-methotrexate complex by using the coordinate-coupled free-energy perturbation method. Singh, U.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Blood levels of a pteridine-binding alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in cancer patients. Fink, M., Ziegler, I., Maier, K., Wilmanns, W. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Bacteriophage T4 baseplate components. I. Binding and location of the folic acid. Kozloff, L.M., Lute, M., Crosby, L.K. J. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Antiarrhythmic activity of four pteridine compounds in ouabain intoxication. Yeh, B.K., Francis, J.S., Gosselin, A.J., Elias, R.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. GTP cyclohydrolase I: purification, characterization, and effects of inhibition on nitric oxide synthase in nocardia species. He, A., Rosazza, J.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. More on aluminum, pteridine, and dialysis dementia. Dhondt, J.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of differentiation to the infective stage of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major by tetrahydrobiopterin. Cunningham, M.L., Titus, R.G., Turco, S.J., Beverley, S.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Folic acid: crystal structure and implications for enzyme binding. Mastropaolo, D., Camerman, A., Camerman, N. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluorouracil combined with the pure (6S)-stereoisomer of folinic acid in high doses for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: a phase I-II study. Machover, D., Grison, X., Goldschmidt, E., Zittoun, J., Lotz, J.P., Metzger, G., Richaud, J., Hannoun, L., Marquet, J., Guillot, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Permanent cell lines from erythrophoromas in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Matsumoto, J., Ishikawa, T., Masahito, P., Takayama, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural analysis of porcine brain nitric oxide synthase reveals a role for tetrahydrobiopterin and L-arginine in the formation of an SDS-resistant dimer. Klatt, P., Schmidt, K., Lehner, D., Glatter, O., Bächinger, H.P., Mayer, B. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Characteristics of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I purified from Escherichia coli. Yim, J.J., Brown, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Investigation of the early steps of molybdopterin biosynthesis in Escherichia coli through the use of in vivo labeling studies. Wuebbens, M.M., Rajagopalan, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro system for molybdopterin biosynthesis. Johnson, M.E., Rajagopalan, K.V. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytokine induction of neopterin production. Henderson, D.C., Sheldon, J., Riches, P., Hobbs, J.R. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant pteridine reductase of Trypanosoma cruzi. Schormann, N., Pal, B., Chattopadhyay, D. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation and expression of rat liver sepiapterin reductase cDNA. Citron, B.A., Milstien, S., Gutierrez, J.C., Levine, R.A., Yanak, B.L., Kaufman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The binding of folyl- and antifolylpolyglutamates to hemoglobin. Benesch, R.E., Kwong, S., Benesch, R., Baugh, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. The pteridine binding site of brain nitric oxide synthase. Tetrahydrobiopterin binding kinetics, specificity, and allosteric interaction with the substrate domain. Klatt, P., Schmid, M., Leopold, E., Schmidt, K., Werner, E.R., Mayer, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Coronary endothelial dysfunction in the insulin-resistant state is linked to abnormal pteridine metabolism and vascular oxidative stress. Shinozaki, K., Hirayama, A., Nishio, Y., Yoshida, Y., Ohtani, T., Okamura, T., Masada, M., Kikkawa, R., Kodama, K., Kashiwagi, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. A maternal product of the Punch locus of Drosophila melanogaster is required for precellular blastoderm nuclear divisions. Chen, X., Reynolds, E.R., Ranganayakulu, G., O'Donnell, J.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Development of the pteridine pathway in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Ziegler, I., McDonald, T., Hesslinger, C., Pelletier, I., Boyle, P., McDonaldo, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Neopterin production by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes. Dukes, C.S., Matthews, T.J., Rivadeneira, E.D., Weinberg, J.B. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by neopterin in vascular smooth muscle cells. Schobersberger, W., Hoffmann, G., Grote, J., Wachter, H., Fuchs, D. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Reduced pteridine derivatives induce apoptosis in PC12 cells. Enzinger, C., Wirleitner, B., Spöttl, N., Böck, G., Fuchs, D., Baier-Bitterlich, G. Neurochem. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of pteridine derivatives on intracellular calcium concentration in human monocytic cells. Wöll, E., Weiss, G., Fuchs, D., Lang, F., Wachter, H. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide down-regulates expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein. Werner, E.R., Bahrami, S., Heller, R., Werner-Felmayer, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. The roles of pteridine reductase 1 and dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase in pteridine metabolism in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Nare, B., Hardy, L.W., Beverley, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Relationship between interferon-gamma, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and tryptophan catabolism. Taylor, M.W., Feng, G.S. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic study of orosomucoid by isoelectric focusing and immunoprinting in patients with carcinoma. Mittermüller, J., Weidinger, S. Electrophoresis (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Crystal structure of chicken liver dihydrofolate reductase complexed with NADP+ and biopterin. McTigue, M.A., Davies, J.F., Kaufman, B.T., Kraut, J. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Enzymatic function of nitric oxide synthases. Andrew, P.J., Mayer, B. Cardiovasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Hyperphenylalaninemia in the hph-1 mouse mutant. McDonald, J.D., Bode, V.C. Pediatr. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Altered expression of a novel adaptin leads to defective pigment granule biogenesis in the Drosophila eye color mutant garnet. Ooi, C.E., Moreira, J.E., Dell'Angelica, E.C., Poy, G., Wassarman, D.A., Bonifacino, J.S. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Odenthal, J., Rossnagel, K., Haffter, P., Kelsh, R.N., Vogelsang, E., Brand, M., van Eeden, F.J., Furutani-Seiki, M., Granato, M., Hammerschmidt, M., Heisenberg, C.P., Jiang, Y.J., Kane, D.A., Mullins, M.C., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. The effect of folic acid on cAMP-elicited cAMP production in Dictyostelium discoideum. Devreotes, P.N. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Pteridine analysis in urine by capillary electrophoresis using laser-induced fluorescence detection. Han, F., Huynh, B.H., Shi, H., Lin, B., Ma, Y. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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