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Chemical Compound Review

ALTHESIN     (3R,5S,8S,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)- 17-ethanoyl...

Synonyms: Aurantex, Alfadione, Alfatesine, Alfathesin, Alphadione, ...
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Disease relevance of Saffan


Psychiatry related information on Saffan


High impact information on Saffan

  • This present study looks at the interaction of an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of the steroid anaesthetic combination Saffan (alphaxalone 9 mg/ml, alphadolone acetate 3 mg/ml) with GABA(A) receptors in the spinal cord [7].
  • NPY and LHRH concentrations in aliquots of the same perfusate sample from the S-ME and circulating LH levels were concurrently measured in 8 monkeys sedated with Saffan [8].
  • It is proposed that light Saffan anaesthesia allows chemoreceptor stimulation to activate the defence areas and that under such conditions the primary response to c.b. stimulation and direct effects of hypoxia may be overridden [3].
  • In contrast, CRF injection in awake rats did decrease LH concentrations in all experimental conditions, suggesting that in OVX rats, the anesthetic (Saffan) used during portal blood collection affected CRF action on LH secretion [9].
  • The H-reflex suppression profiles recorded under Etomidate, Saffan, and Nembutal anesthesia were less sensitive to the stimulation rate, with little reduction until intervals were 200 ms or less [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Saffan


Biological context of Saffan

  • This indicates that the abolition of spontaneous membrane potential oscillations was not a direct effect on the coupling between SPNs, but was a result of the abolition of spontaneous activity by Saffan [14].
  • In the presence of Saffan the amplitude and duration of the action potential after-hyperpolarization were reduced and larger depolarizations were required in order to evoke trains of action potentials [14].
  • Patterns of c-fos gene expression were compared between Saffan-anesthetized experimental animals and age-matched normotensive controls administered vehicle [15].
  • METHODS: Immature pigs anesthetized with Saffan were bled 30% of blood volume with or without concomitant somatic afferent (brachial) nerve stimulation (to mimic injury) [16].
  • The immunosuppressive effects on cell-mediated immunity of alfathesin, when used as the sole agent for short-term anaesthesia, were investigated in ten women undergoing pregnancy termination [17].

Anatomical context of Saffan

  • 1. In cats anaesthetized with Saffan, which does not block afferent activation of the brain stem defence areas, we have analysed the cardiovascular changes induced by 3 min periods of graded systemic hypoxia (fraction of O2 in inspirate, Fi,O2, 0.15, 0.12, 0.08, 0.06) [18].
  • The two steroid components of Alfathesin, alfaxolone and alfadolone acetate, have been tested for porphyrin-inducing activity in chick embryo liver cell culture and for hepatic ALA-synthetase-inducing activity in the 17-day-old chick embryo [19].
  • Under alfathesin, baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes were double those found with chloralose-urethane [20].
  • In 5-19-day-old kittens anesthetized with Saffan, the discharges of de-efferented triceps surae muscle receptors were recorded from afferent fibers in dorsal root filaments [21].
  • In the present investigation it was shown that electrical or chemical (D,L-homocysteic acid, DLH) stimulation in a defined area of the medial prefrontal cortex inhibits cardiovascular components of the defence reaction elicited by stimulation in the basal nucleus of the amygdala or in the hypothalamus in rats anaesthetized by Saffan [22].

Associations of Saffan with other chemical compounds

  • The phrenic high frequency oscillation (HFO) was present in decerebrate, unanesthetized piglets and in piglets anesthetized with Saffan, albeit reduced at 10 times recording level, but was absent under pentobarbital [23].
  • Spontaneous efferent sympathetic activity (cervical sympathetic and splanchnic nerves) was recorded simultaneously with efferent phrenic discharge, with aortic pressure, and with the electrocardiogram in less than 1- to 51-day-old neonatal swine anesthetized with Saffan (alfaxalone) [24].
  • Etomidate was compared with alfathesin for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in a double-blind fashion in 48 fit patients undergoing minor gynaecological operations as outpatients [25].
  • Thiopentone and Alfathesin produced a significant dose dependent depression in chemiluminescence [26].
  • In Saffan-anesthetized rats, injection of lidocaine (LIDO, 4%) in dorsomedial PAG, but not in ventromedial PAG, significantly attenuated the decrease in hindquarter resistance (HQR) produced by electrical stimulation of the AV3V region, and the poststimulatory increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HQR [27].

Gene context of Saffan


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saffan


  1. Postnatal development of the pattern of respiratory and cardiovascular response to systemic hypoxia in the piglet: the roles of adenosine. Elnazir, B., Marshall, J.M., Kumar, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Ventrolateral medullary lesions block the antinociceptive and cardiovascular responses elicited by stimulating the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter in rats. Lovick, T.A. Pain (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of cardiovascular responses evoked following changes in peripheral chemoreceptor activity in the rat. Marshall, J.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of anaesthesia on pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid secretion in the cat. Albinus, M., Blair, E.L., Hirst, B.H., Reed, J.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Myoclonic seizures in the mouse induced by alphaxalone and related steroid anaesthetics. File, S.E., Simmonds, M.A. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Central nervous system actions of corticotropin-releasing factor on cardiovascular function in the absence of locomotor activity. Overton, J.M., Fisher, L.A. Regul. Pept. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Antinociceptive properties of neurosteroids II. Experiments with Saffan and its components alphaxalone and alphadolone to reveal separation of anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects and the involvement of spinal cord GABA(A) receptors. Nadeson, R., Goodchild, C.S. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuropeptide Y is a neuromodulator of pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release in the gonadectomized rhesus monkey. Woller, M.J., McDonald, J.K., Reboussin, D.M., Terasawa, E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Corticotropin-releasing factor decreases plasma luteinizing hormone levels in female rats by inhibiting gonadotropin-releasing hormone release into hypophysial-portal circulation. Petraglia, F., Sutton, S., Vale, W., Plotsky, P. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of different anesthetics on the paired-pulse depression of the h reflex in adult rat. Ho, S.M., Waite, P.M. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of adenosine in the respiratory and cardiovascular response to systemic hypoxia in the rat. Neylon, M., Marshall, J.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of the sympathetic nervous system on renal function during hypothermia. Broman, M., Källskog, O., Kopp, U.C., Wolgast, M. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of steroid anaesthesia on some liver function tests in goats. Amer, H.A., Ahmed, A.S., Gohar, H.M., Abdel Mamid, M.A. J. Steroid Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Actions of the anaesthetic Saffan on rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones in vitro. Nolan, M.F., Gibson, I.C., Logan, S.D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Hypotension-induced expression of the c-fos gene in the medulla oblongata of piglets. Ruggiero, D.A., Tong, S., Anwar, M., Gootman, N., Gootman, P.M. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Modification of the cardiovascular response to hemorrhage by somatic afferent nerve stimulation with special reference to gut and skeletal muscle blood flow. Mackway-Jones, K., Foëx, B.A., Kirkman, E., Little, R.A. The Journal of trauma. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell-mediated immune suppression due to alfathesin in short-term anaesthesia. Rosenfeld, A., Handzel, Z.T., Konichezky, S., Levin, S., Soroker, D. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Analysis of factors that contribute to cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by graded levels of systemic hypoxia. Marshall, J.M., Metcalfe, J.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Porphyrin-inducing activity of alfaxolone and alfadolone acetate in chick embryo liver cells. Fischer, P.W., Ferizovic, A., Neilson, I.R., Marks, G.S. Anesthesiology (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Reflex responses to baroreceptor, chemoreceptor and nociceptor inputs in single renal sympathetic neurones in the rabbit and the effects of anaesthesia on them. Dorward, P.K., Burke, S.L., Jänig, W., Cassell, J. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Observations on static and dynamic responses of muscle stretch receptors in kittens. Jami, L., Vejsada, R., Zytnicki, D. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Stimulation in prefrontal cortex area inhibits cardiovascular and motor components of the defence reaction in rats. al Maskati, H.A., Zbrozyna, A.W. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of anesthesia on efferent phrenic activity in neonatal swine. Gootman, P.M., Cohen, H.L., Steele, A.M., Sica, A.L., Condemi, G., Gandhi, M.R., Eberle, L.P. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity in neonatal swine. Gootman, P.M., Gandhi, M.R., Steele, A.M., Hundley, B.W., Cohen, H.L., Eberle, L.P., Sica, A.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Alfathesin and etomidate for minor outpatient anaesthesia. Morison, D.H., Dunn, G.L., de Graft-Johnson, A. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. The effects of intravenous anaesthetic agents on human neutrophil chemiluminescence. White, I.W., Gelb, A.W., Wexler, H.R., Stiller, C.R., Keown, P.A. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of periaqueductal gray in the pressor response produced by central injections of angiotensin II. Portis, L.R., Lewis, S.J., Brody, M.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of adenosine in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the anaesthetized rat. Thomas, T., Marshall, J.M. Exp. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Alfathesin for anaesthetic induction at caesarean section. Mahomedy, M.C., Downing, J.W., Mahomedy, Y.H. S. Afr. Med. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Anaesthesia for ambulatory surgery. Dechene, J.P. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Steroid anaesthesia: alphadione depresses multiunit activity in the mesencephalic reticular formation. Tamásy, V., Korányi, L., Lissák, K. Acta physiologica Hungarica. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Clinical trial of continuous infusion of alphaxalone/alphadolone in intensive care patients. Stewart, G.O., Dobb, G.J., Craib, I.A. Anaesthesia and intensive care. (1983) [Pubmed]
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