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Gene Review

Re  -  rex

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Den, Ri, denuded, riccioli
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Disease relevance of Re

  • This mutation exhibits corneal opacity as well as abnormal skin and hair development resembling rex denuded (Re(den)) and bareskin (Bsk) [1].
  • Later, the denuded areas developed a keratosis which was prone to infection [2].
  • To investigate the nature of this protection, dogs and rabbits were immunized with purified glycolipid prepared by phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether extraction of the "Re" mutant of Salmonella minnesota 595 and opsonophagocytic and bactericidal tests were carried out using lapine peritoneal granulocytes and serum factors [3].
  • Results from receptor-binding assays conducted with B16 F1 murine melanoma cells indicated that receptor-binding affinity was reduced to approximately 1% of its original levels after Re incorporation into the cyclic Cys4,10, D-Phe7-alpha-MSH4-13 analog [4].
  • In all of the in vitro assays, these synthetic compounds exhibited high activities comparable to those of a reference lipid A prepared from Escherichia coli O8:K27 Re-mutant strain F515 [5].

High impact information on Re


Chemical compound and disease context of Re

  • In these studies we utilized intrinsically labeled 14C-labeled LPS from Salmonella minnesota or the 14C-labeled glycolipid derived from the Re mutant of S. minnesota (R595) [11].
  • Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) from Salmonella typhimurium Re mutant strain was used as a potential immune response modifier in some vaccines [12].
  • Treatment with nontoxic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) derived from a polysaccharide-deficient, heptoseless Re mutant of either Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella minnesota R595 enhanced the immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SSS-III) antibody response of C3H/HeSnJ mice [13].
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from three strains of Salmonella typhimurium, i.e., the rough Re mutant SL1102, the rough Ra mutant TV119, and the smooth strain SH4809, was first electrodialyzed (eLPS) and then divalent cation deprived by EDTA treatment and finally made monomeric by deoxycholate solubilization [14].
  • Immunotherapeutic agents studied included live Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) preparations in varying doses and strains (Tice, Pasteur, and Glaxo), Re mutant glycolipid (ReG) from Salmonella typhimurium, BCG cell wall skeletons (CWS), CWS plus B4 glycolipid fraction of ReG, and Keyhole-Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) [15].

Biological context of Re


Anatomical context of Re

  • Therefore, the endogenous C1q of macrophages also appears to be involved in attachment of the S. minnesota Re mutant [19].
  • In contrast to the S-form of Salmonella minnesota, its Re mutant binds to mouse peritoneal macrophages [19].
  • Macrophages preincubated with immunoglobulin G-sensitized erythrocytes had a low chemiluminescent signal, and after treatment of the cells with the Re mutant, there was an additional, higher signal [19].
  • In vitro stimulation of spleen cells from animals classically immunized with Salmonella Re mutant enhanced the number of lipid A-specific IgG-producing hybridomas from six after direct fusion to 17 after stimulation [20].
  • Salmonella Re mutants are non-invasive for cell monolayers but still can enter and replicate in L-929 murine fibroblast cells [21].

Associations of Re with chemical compounds

  • IgM antibody to the Re mutant was protective against bacterial challenge with both test strains of bacteria and S. typhi LPS [22].
  • Spermidine concentration in the livers of both male and female PRO/Re mice was approx. 130% that of the controls [23].
  • Male PRO/Re mice excreted putrescine at 175% and spermidine at 300% the amount of male C57BL/6J controls [23].
  • The increased polyamine biosynthesis and excretion in the PRO/Re mutant mice may be a mechanism to decrease the extent of proline accumulation [23].
  • When the concentrations of the polyamines in the tissues of the PRO/Re mice were determined, spermidine and spermine concentrations in the kidneys of the male PRO/Re mice were twice those of the controls [23].

Regulatory relationships of Re


Other interactions of Re

  • A family of type I keratin genes and the homeobox-2 gene complex are closely linked to the rex locus on mouse chromosome 11 [26].
  • Examination of the enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis revealed that ornithine decarboxylase, the initial enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway, was increased by 150% in the kidneys and by 100% in the liver of male PRO/Re mice [23].
  • Preincubation of macrophages with the Re mutant abolishes immunoglobulin G-sensitized erythrocyte-induced chemiluminescence [19].
  • Mouse protection induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAC1R and its defective mutants, Salmonella minnesota Re-mutant and Escherichia coli O14 [27].
  • The animals challenged with WT LPS showed a decrease in uterine cAMP when the mice were starting to expel the fetuses while the Re LPS treated group maintained control levels of cAMP [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Re


  1. A new mutation Rim3 resembling Re(den) is mapped close to retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) gene on mouse chromosome 11. Sato, H., Koide, T., Masuya, H., Wakana, S., Sagai, T., Umezawa, A., Ishiguro, S., Tamai, M., Shiroishi, T., Tama, M. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic disorders of keratin: are scarring alopecias a sub-set? Rothnagel, J.A., Longley, M.A., Holder, R.A., Bundman, D.S., Seki, T., Bickenbach, J.R., Roop, D.R. J. Dermatol. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional role of antibody against "core" glycolipid of Enterobacteriaceae. Young, L.S., Stevens, P., Ingram, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Design and characterization of alpha-melanotropin peptide analogs cyclized through rhenium and technetium metal coordination. Giblin, M.F., Wang, N., Hoffman, T.J., Jurisson, S.S., Quinn, T.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunopharmacological activities of a synthetic counterpart of a biosynthetic lipid A precursor molecule and of its analogs. Takada, H., Kotani, S., Tsujimoto, M., Ogawa, T., Takahashi, I., Harada, K., Katsukawa, C., Tanaka, S., Shiba, T., Kusumoto, S. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasminogen activator in mouse and rat oocytes: induction during meiotic maturation. Huarte, J., Belin, D., Vassalli, J.D. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Monozygotic twin formation in mouse embryos in vitro. Hsu, Y.C., Gonda, M.A. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis in beige mice. Deficiency of leukocytic neutral proteinases prevents the induction of albuminuria in the heterologous phase. Schrijver, G., Schalkwijk, J., Robben, J.C., Assmann, K.J., Koene, R.A. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Decreased neointimal formation in Mac-1(-/-) mice reveals a role for inflammation in vascular repair after angioplasty. Simon, D.I., Dhen, Z., Seifert, P., Edelman, E.R., Ballantyne, C.M., Rogers, C. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Impaired arterial neointima formation in mice with disruption of the plasminogen gene. Carmeliet, P., Moons, L., Ploplis, V., Plow, E., Collen, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Binding of bacterial endotoxin to murine spleen lymphocytes. Kabir, S., Rosenstreich, D.L. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Variation of Brucella abortus 2308 infection in BALB/c mice induced by prior vaccination with salt-extractable periplasmic proteins from Brucella abortus 19. Pugh, G.W., Tabatabai, L.B. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunomodulatory activity of monophosphoryl lipid A in C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeSnJ mice. Hiernaux, J.R., Stashak, P.W., Cantrell, J.L., Rudbach, J.A., Baker, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of the physical state of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide in expression of biological and endotoxic properties. Shnyra, A., Hultenby, K., Lindberg, A.A. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunotherapy of murine transitional cell carcinoma. Lamm, D.L., Reichert, D.F., Harris, S.C., Lucio, R.M. J. Urol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. The dominant alopecia phenotypes Bareskin, Rex-denuded, and Reduced Coat 2 are caused by mutations in gasdermin 3. Runkel, F., Marquardt, A., Stoeger, C., Kochmann, E., Simon, D., Kohnke, B., Korthaus, D., Wattler, F., Fuchs, H., Hrabé de Angelis, M., Stumm, G., Nehls, M., Wattler, S., Franz, T., Augustin, M. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The Hox-2 homeo box gene complex on mouse chromosome 11 is closely linked to Re. Hart, C.P., Dalton, D.K., Nichols, L., Hunihan, L., Roderick, T.H., Langley, S.H., Taylor, B.A., Ruddle, F.H. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization and mapping of DNA sequence homologous to mouse U1a1 snRNA: localization on chromosome 11 near the Dlb-1 and Re loci. Michael, S.K., Hilgers, J., Kozak, C., Whitney, J.B., Howard, E.F. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Contributions of C1q, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and porins during attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis by murine macrophages. Euteneuer, B., Störkel, S., Loos, M. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro stimulation of immune spleen cells enhances the number of anti-lipid A-producing hybridomas. Erich, T., Dekker, B., De Beer, M., Torensma, R., Verhoef, J. J. Immunol. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Monoclonal antibody of IgG isotype against a cross-reactive lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia and Salmonella Re chemotype enhances infectivity in L-929 fibroblast cells. Haralambieva, I.H., Iankov, I.D., Petrov, D.P., Mladenov, I.V., Mitov, I.G. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunization with rough mutants of Salmonella minnesota: protective activity of IgM and IgG antibody to the R595 (Re chemotype) mutant. McCabe, W.R., DeMaria, A., Berberich, H., Johns, M.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Altered polyamine metabolism in the PRO/Re strain of inbred mice. Manen, C.A., Blake, R.L., Russell, D.H. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. The NF-kappaB and IkappaB system in injured arteries. Lindner, V. Pathobiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Müllerian inhibiting substance as oocyte meiosis inhibitor. Takahashi, M., Koide, S.S., Donahoe, P.K. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. A family of type I keratin genes and the homeobox-2 gene complex are closely linked to the rex locus on mouse chromosome 11. Nadeau, J.H., Berger, F.G., Cox, D.R., Crosby, J.L., Davisson, M.T., Ferrara, D., Fuchs, E., Hart, C., Hunihan, L., Lalley, P.A. Genomics (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse protection induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAC1R and its defective mutants, Salmonella minnesota Re-mutant and Escherichia coli O14. Stanislavsky, E.S., Kholodkova, E.V., Makarenko, T.A., Sukhachevskaya, M.V. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of endotoxin on uterine cycle AMP in pregnant mice. Shaw, R., Cameron, J.A. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Cross-reactive antigens: their potential for immunization-induced immunity to Gram-negative bacteria. McCabe, W.R., Bruins, S.C., Craven, D.E., Johns, M. J. Infect. Dis. (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Use of synthetic antigens to determine the epitope specificities of monoclonal antibodies against the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate region of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Brade, L., Kosma, P., Appelmelk, B.J., Paulsen, H., Brade, H. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of active and passive immunizations with lipid A and salmonella minnesota Re 595 on gram-negative infections in mice. Hodgin, L.A., Drews, J. Infection (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins on membranes of murine lymphocyte and macrophage-like cell lines. Kirikae, T., Kirikae, F., Schade, F.U., Yoshida, M., Kondo, S., Hisatsune, K., Nishikawa, S., Rietschel, E.T. FEMS microbiology immunology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Vascular wound healing and neointima formation induced by perivascular electric injury in mice. Carmeliet, P., Moons, L., Stassen, J.M., De Mol, M., Bouché, A., van den Oord, J.J., Kockx, M., Collen, D. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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