The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Sct  -  secretin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Secretin
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Sct

  • Secretin evokes catecholamine secretion from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells [1].
  • Secretin-mediated gene delivery, a specific targeting mechanism with potential for treatment of biliary and pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis [2].
  • Ablation of secretin-expressing cells produced severe colitis with morphological features similar to those observed in graft-versus-host (GVH) disease [3].
  • Secretin receptors were highly expressed in non-neoplastic ducts and lobuli and also in lower amounts in ductal neoplasias, including ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia [4].
  • Protective effects of exogenous secretin on ceruletide-induced acute pancreatitis in the rat [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sct

  • Several clinical studies have reported modestly increased social interaction in autistic children following intravenous secretin administration [6].

High impact information on Sct

  • The ACh-induced potentiation of the secretin effect on both intracellular cAMP levels and the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity was individually abolished by two calcineurin inhibitors, FK-506 and cyclosporin A (100 nM) [7].
  • The effects of secretin on ion transport mechanisms involved in regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and HCO3- excretion were characterized in bile duct epithelial (BDE) cells isolated from normal rat liver. pHi was measured with 2,7-bis(carboxy-ethyl)-5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein-acetomethylester (BCECF-AM) using a microfluorimetric method [8].
  • Acoustic stress inhibited cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)- and meal-induced gallbladder contraction, and restraint stress inhibited basal and CCK/secretin-stimulated pancreatic secretion [9].
  • To test the hypothesis that acid-induced release of secretin is mediated by a secretin-releasing factor (S-RF), anesthetized rats were prepared with pyloric ligation, duodenal and jejunal cannulas, and pancreatic duct cannulas [10].
  • In fasting rats, intraduodenal infusion of dilute hydrochloric acid results in significant increases in both pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma concentration of secretin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sct


Biological context of Sct

  • Ductal secretion was evaluated by measurement of secretin-induced choleresis, secretin receptor (SR) gene expression, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels [15].
  • Secretin also augmented (approximately 4-fold) phosphorylation of ERK1/2 [1].
  • Consistent with the importance of this residue, alanine replacement mutagenesis (R14A) resulted in substantial reductions in the potency (127-fold) and binding affinity (400-fold) of secretin relative to its action at the wild-type receptor [16].
  • The predicted amino acid sequences reveal that each precursor consists of a signal peptide, an N-terminal peptide, secretin, and a 72-amino acid C-terminal peptide [17].
  • Comparison of the rat secretin gene to the other members of the glucagon-secretin gene family reveals that similarities are restricted to the exons encoding the biologically active peptides [18].

Anatomical context of Sct


Associations of Sct with chemical compounds

  • Colchicine ablated secretin pretreatment-dependent bile acid-induced choleresis, increased biliary lipid secretion, and the prolongation of the TC biliary transit [19].
  • Phosphoamino acid analysis of the secretin phosphoreceptor demonstrated predominance of phosphothreonine over phosphoserine (3.2:1), with no phosphotyrosine observed [20].
  • The unusually high number of serine, leucine, and arginine residues in secretin has precluded the use of oligonucleotides to screen cDNA libraries to isolate a secretin cDNA [17].
  • Rat secretin differs from its porcine counterpart by a single glutamine-for-arginine substitution at position 14 [17].
  • Second, we found that the previously reported facilitatory action of secretin on GABAergic inputs to Purkinje neurons is partly dependent on the release of endogenous glutamate [21].

Physical interactions of Sct

  • Secretin is a 27-residue peptide hormone with a diffuse pharmacophoric domain that binds to the secretin receptor, a prototypic member of the Class B family of G protein-coupled receptors [22].
  • Our results suggest that although the Gln(3) residue of glucagon did not interact with the equivalent binding pocket as the Asp(3) residue of vasoactive intestinal peptide or secretin, the Asp(3)-glucagon analogue was able to interact with position 188 of the K188R/I195K glucagon receptor [23].

Regulatory relationships of Sct

  • We tested in isolated cholangiocytes if secretin enhances ASBT translocation to the apical membrane from latent preexisting intracellular stores [19].
  • ET-1 inhibits secretin-induced ductal secretion by decreasing secretin receptor and cAMP synthesis, two important determinants of ductal secretion [24].
  • The inhibitory effects of ET-1 on secretin-induced cAMP synthesis and luminal duct expansion were blocked by specific inhibitors of the ETA (BQ-610) receptor [24].
  • Simultaneous infusion of gastrin inhibited secretin-induced choleresis and bicarbonate output in BDL rats [25].
  • [psi 4,5]Secretin was shown to be a secretin receptor antagonist that inhibits secretin-stimulated increase in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in isolated pancreatic acini of the guinea pig [26].

Other interactions of Sct

  • In conclusion, secretin stimulates cholehepatic shunting of conjugated bile acids and is associated with increased cholangiocyte apical membrane ASBT [19].
  • Secretin activation of chromogranin A gene transcription. Identification of the signaling pathways in cis and in trans [1].
  • Trans-activation (approximately 21-fold) of GAL4-CREB fusion protein by secretin indicates involvement of CREB in secretin signaling to gene transcription [1].
  • The amino acid sequence deduced from the shorter transcript is identical to a precursor form of secretin recently isolated from porcine duodenum [Gafvelin, G., Jornvall, H. & Mutt, V. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6781-6785] [18].
  • Recently, we found that, in isolated, vascularly perfused rat stomach model, the inhibition of acid secretion by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was mediated in part via local release of secretin [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sct


  1. Secretin activation of chromogranin A gene transcription. Identification of the signaling pathways in cis and in trans. Mahapatra, N.R., Mahata, M., O'Connor, D.T., Mahata, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Secretin-mediated gene delivery, a specific targeting mechanism with potential for treatment of biliary and pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis. McKay, T., Reynolds, P., Jezzard, S., Curiel, D., Coutelle, C. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Sudden onset of colitis after ablation of secretin-expressing lymphocytes in transgenic mice. Rindi, G., Civallero, M., Candusso, M.E., Marchetti, A., Klersy, C., Nano, R., Leiter, A.B. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Secretin receptors in normal and diseased human pancreas: marked reduction of receptor binding in ductal neoplasia. Körner, M., Hayes, G.M., Rehmann, R., Zimmermann, A., Friess, H., Miller, L.J., Reubi, J.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Protective effects of exogenous secretin on ceruletide-induced acute pancreatitis in the rat. Renner, I.G., Wisner, J.R., Rinderknecht, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Partial reversal of phencyclidine-induced impairment of prepulse inhibition by secretin. Myers, K.M., Goulet, M., Rusche, J., Boismenu, R., Davis, M. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Role and mechanisms of action of acetylcholine in the regulation of rat cholangiocyte secretory functions. Alvaro, D., Alpini, G., Jezequel, A.M., Bassotti, C., Francia, C., Fraioli, F., Romeo, R., Marucci, L., Le Sage, G., Glaser, S.S., Benedetti, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of secretion on intracellular pH regulation in isolated rat bile duct epithelial cells. Alvaro, D., Cho, W.K., Mennone, A., Boyer, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Noradrenergic inhibition of canine gallbladder contraction and murine pancreatic secretion during stress by corticotropin-releasing factor. Lenz, H.J., Messmer, B., Zimmerman, F.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanism of acid-induced release of secretin in rats. Presence of a secretin-releasing peptide. Li, P., Lee, K.Y., Chang, T.M., Chey, W.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement by secretin of the apparently maximal hepatic transport of bilirubin in the rat. Ricci, G.L., Michiels, R., Fevery, J., De Groote, J. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Colchicine does not inhibit secretin-induced choleresis in rats exhibiting hyperplasia of bile ductules: evidence against a pivotal role of exocytic vesicle insertion. Dällenbach, A., Renner, E.L. J. Hepatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Secretin prevents taurocholate-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in the rat. Fukumoto, Y., Ando, M., Yasunaga, M., Okuda, M., Okita, K. J. Hepatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Growth responses of rat stomach cancer cells to gastro-entero-pancreatic hormones. Kobori, O., Vuillot, M.T., Martin, F. Int. J. Cancer (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Cholinergic system modulates growth, apoptosis, and secretion of cholangiocytes from bile duct-ligated rats. LeSagE, G., Alvaro, D., Benedetti, A., Glaser, S., Marucci, L., Baiocchi, L., Eisel, W., Caligiuri, A., Phinizy, J.L., Rodgers, R., Francis, H., Alpini, G. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction among four residues distributed through the secretin pharmacophore and a focused region of the secretin receptor amino terminus. Dong, M., Zang, M., Pinon, D.I., Li, Z., Lybrand, T.P., Miller, L.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Secretin: structure of the precursor and tissue distribution of the mRNA. Kopin, A.S., Wheeler, M.B., Leiter, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The secretin gene: evolutionary history, alternative splicing, and developmental regulation. Kopin, A.S., Wheeler, M.B., Nishitani, J., McBride, E.W., Chang, T.M., Chey, W.Y., Leiter, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Secretin activation of the apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter is associated with cholehepatic shunting in rats. Alpini, G., Glaser, S., Baiocchi, L., Francis, H., Xia, X., Lesage, G. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal tail of the secretin receptor. Ozcelebi, F., Holtmann, M.H., Rentsch, R.U., Rao, R., Miller, L.J. Mol. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Endogenous release and multiple actions of secretin in the rat cerebellum. Lee, S.M., Chen, L., Chow, B.K., Yung, W.H. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Spatial approximation between two residues in the mid-region of secretin and the amino terminus of its receptor. Incorporation of seven sets of such constraints into a three-dimensional model of the agonist-bound secretin receptor. Dong, M., Li, Z., Zang, M., Pinon, D.I., Lybrand, T.P., Miller, L.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Mutational analysis of the glucagon receptor: similarities with the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)/secretin receptors for recognition of the ligand's third residue. Perret, J., Van Craenenbroeck, M., Langer, I., Vertongen, P., Gregoire, F., Robberecht, P., Waelbroeck, M. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Endothelin-1 inhibits secretin-stimulated ductal secretion by interacting with ETA receptors on large cholangiocytes. Caligiuri, A., Glaser, S., Rodgers, R.E., Phinizy, J.L., Robertson, W., Papa, E., Pinzani, M., Alpini, G. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Gastrin inhibits secretin-induced ductal secretion by interaction with specific receptors on rat cholangiocytes. Glaser, S.S., Rodgers, R.E., Phinizy, J.L., Robertson, W.E., Lasater, J., Caligiuri, A., Tretjak, Z., LeSage, G.D., Alpini, G. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of [(CH2NH)4,5]secretin on pancreatic exocrine secretion in guinea pigs and rats. Kim, C.D., Li, P., Lee, K.Y., Coy, D.H., Chey, W.Y. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence on the presence of secretin cells in the gastric antral and oxyntic mucosa. Chey, W.Y., Chang, C.H., Pan, H.J., Chang, C., Kim, B.M., Park, I.S., Chang, T.M. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Secretin depolarizes nucleus tractus solitarius neurons through activation of a nonselective cationic conductance. Yang, B., Goulet, M., Boismenu, R., Ferguson, A.V. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities