The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

FRZB  -  frizzled-related protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FIZ, FRE, FRITZ, FRP, FRP-3, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of FRZB


Psychiatry related information on FRZB

  • Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD), previously known as familial rectal pain (FRP, OMIM 167400), is an inherited disease causing intense burning rectal, ocular, and submandibular pain and flushing [6].
  • The author concludes that "when seeking to explain the nature and significance of racism in contemporary Europe, we might usefully begin by focussing on the processes involved in the construction and reproduction of the Nation-State...." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)[7]
  • According to the results, a good half of this decrease is attributable to the trends in real wages and alcohol consumption." (SUMMARY IN FRE)[8]
  • Rorschach responses of three subjects were used to stimulate the type of role-playing popularized by Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy [9].
  • In addition, we also viewed migration as an action with the potential to modify gender relations and alter future migration decision-making, as women gain experience in the labour market and exposure to new social and cultural environments." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)[10]

High impact information on FRZB

  • Frzb-1 is a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling expressed in the Spemann organizer [11].
  • In this report, we find that FRP and inhibin modulate both the induction of haemoglobin accumulation in a human erythroleukaemic cell line, K562, and the proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells in human bone marrow culture [12].
  • In contrast to the effects of GnRH and other reported gonadal gonadotropin releasing fractions, the action of FRP is not mediated by GnRH receptors [13].
  • Neither FeCl3 in combinations with H2O2, nor Fe3+ or Fe2+ chelated with EDTA, nor Zn2+-protoporphyrin IX, nor protoporphyrin IX caused significant inactivation of FRP [14].
  • We provide evidence suggesting that skeletal myogenesis in the head is induced by the BMP inhibitors, Noggin and Gremlin, and the Wnt inhibitor, Frzb [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of FRZB


Biological context of FRZB

  • Phosphorylation of SMAD-1/-5 and downregulation of FRZB were confirmed in vivo in a mouse model of joint surface injury [18].
  • However, genotyping showed lack of association for a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6, whereas a single-nucleotide polymorphism in FRZB resulting in an Arg324Gly substitution at the carboxyl terminus was associated with hip OA in the female probands (P = 0.04) [19].
  • In addition, a haplotype coding for substitutions of two highly conserved arginine residues (Arg200Trp and Arg324Gly) in FRZB was a strong risk factor for primary hip OA, with an odds ratio of 4.1 (P = 0.004) [19].
  • Here, microsatellite targeting of eight candidate genes in this region from 2q23-2q32 demonstrated significant associations with the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 gene in all probands and the integrin alpha 6 and frizzled motif associated with bone development (FRZB) genes in female probands [19].
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that the R324G variant of the FRZB gene is involved in OA and indicate a role of this variant in several generalized OA phenotypes [1].

Anatomical context of FRZB


Associations of FRZB with chemical compounds

  • The size of the pool of 0.1% Triton soluble beta-catenin tended to decrease in myocardial samples with high sFRP 3 and 4 expression levels [24].
  • FRP is highly potent (50% effective concentration (EC50) approximately 25 pM) in stimulating the secretion and biosynthesis of FSH but not of LH or any other pituitary hormone [13].
  • A factor from conditioned medium of a leukaemia cell line has been isolated which can induce mouse Friend cells to become benzidine-positive, and which shares a similar N-terminal sequence with porcine FRP [12].
  • Therefore, anti-FRP mAbs were thought to induce the fusion via an integrin system(s) [25].
  • Here, Irving Fritz and Edoardo Arrigoni-Martelli review the evidence that carnitine and its O-acyl derivatives also influence membrane fluidity, ion channel functions, smooth muscle contractility, membrane stability and cardiac functions [26].

Other interactions of FRZB

  • A meta-analysis of these data and those from previously published reports indicated a strong association between the FRZB G324 allele (P < 0.0003) and suggested that an ASPN allele is protective against the risk of knee OA in Caucasians (P < 0.02) [27].
  • In contrast, Dkk1 and FrzB were not expressed in normal colon [2].
  • FRZB encodes secreted frizzled-related protein 3, which is a soluble antagonist of wingless (wnt) signaling [19].
  • Previous studies have shown that three members of the Wnt signaling pathway, the ligand WNT5A, the receptor FZ4, and the Wnt antagonist FRZB1, are implicated in the formation and differentiation of the digits [28].
  • The present study shows that levels of SFRPI, SFRP3 and SFRP5 mRNAs are also abnormal in RP, giving rise to idiosyncratic expression patterns [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FRZB

  • Serum FRP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [30].
  • The myocardial localization of sFRP 3 and 4 expression was investigated using in situ RT-PCR [24].
  • We report here the purification of an FSH releasing protein (FRP) and its characterization by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing and reducing conditions and by partial sequence analysis [13].
  • In this paper Jeffrey Platt, Fritz Bach and colleagues describe a model of hyperacute rejection and propose that, if hyperacute rejection can be averted for a period after transplantation, prolonged xenograft survival will be possible [31].
  • Analogs demonstrated inhibition of p185 phosphotyrosine in cell culture and in vivo after systemic drug administration to nu/nu nude mice bearing Fisher rat embryo cells transfected with human erbB-2 (FRE/erbB-2) [32].


  1. Association of the Frizzled-related protein gene with symptomatic osteoarthritis at multiple sites. Min, J.L., Meulenbelt, I., Riyazi, N., Kloppenburg, M., Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J., Seymour, A.B., Pols, H.A., van Duijn, C.M., Slagboom, P.E. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of secreted Wnt antagonists in gastrointestinal tissues: potential role in stem cell homeostasis. Byun, T., Karimi, M., Marsh, J.L., Milovanovic, T., Lin, F., Holcombe, R.F. J. Clin. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for a differential association of the Arg200Trp single-nucleotide polymorphism in FRZB with hip osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Lories, R.J., Boonen, S., Peeters, J., de Vlam, K., Luyten, F.P. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypermethylation and expression regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein genes in colorectal tumor. Qi, J., Zhu, Y.Q., Luo, J., Tao, W.H. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Delayed xenograft rejection. Bach, F.H., Winkler, H., Ferran, C., Hancock, W.W., Robson, S.C. Immunol. Today (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Painful channels. Catterall, W.A., Yu, F.H. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Migration to Britain: the significance of a historical approach. Miles, R. International migration (Geneva, Switzerland) (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Real wages, alcohol consumption and mortality in Sweden, 1861-1913. Norstrom, T. European journal of population = Revue européenne de démographie. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. A role-play Rorschach procedure. Bricklin, B. Journal of personality assessment. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. The circular migration of Puerto Rican women: towards a gendered explanation. Ellis, M., Conway, D., Bailey, A.J. International migration (Geneva, Switzerland) (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Frzb-1 is a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling expressed in the Spemann organizer. Leyns, L., Bouwmeester, T., Kim, S.H., Piccolo, S., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Importance of FSH-releasing protein and inhibin in erythrodifferentiation. Yu, J., Shao, L.E., Lemas, V., Yu, A.L., Vaughan, J., Rivier, J., Vale, W. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification and characterization of an FSH releasing protein from porcine ovarian follicular fluid. Vale, W., Rivier, J., Vaughan, J., McClintock, R., Corrigan, A., Woo, W., Karr, D., Spiess, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Derepression of ferritin messenger RNA translation by hemin in vitro. Lin, J.J., Daniels-McQueen, S., Patino, M.M., Gaffield, L., Walden, W.E., Thach, R.E. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Antagonists of Wnt and BMP signaling promote the formation of vertebrate head muscle. Tzahor, E., Kempf, H., Mootoosamy, R.C., Poon, A.C., Abzhanov, A., Tabin, C.J., Dietrich, S., Lassar, A.B. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Allelic expression analysis suggests that cis-acting polymorphism of FRZB expression does not contribute to osteoarthritis susceptibility. Snelling, S., Ferreira, A., Loughlin, J. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of Frzb/secreted Frizzled-related protein 3, a secreted Wnt antagonist, in human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells suppresses tumor growth and cellular invasiveness. Zi, X., Guo, Y., Simoneau, A.R., Hope, C., Xie, J., Holcombe, R.F., Hoang, B.H. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of WNT and BMP signaling in adult human articular cartilage following mechanical injury. Dell'Accio, F., De Bari, C., El Tawil, N.M., Barone, F., Mitsiadis, T.A., O'Dowd, J., Pitzalis, C. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional variants within the secreted frizzled-related protein 3 gene are associated with hip osteoarthritis in females. Loughlin, J., Dowling, B., Chapman, K., Marcelline, L., Mustafa, Z., Southam, L., Ferreira, A., Ciesielski, C., Carson, D.A., Corr, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Identifying intercellular signaling genes expressed in malignant plasma cells by using complementary DNA arrays. De Vos, J., Couderc, G., Tarte, K., Jourdan, M., Requirand, G., Delteil, M.C., Rossi, J.F., Mechti, N., Klein, B. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Severe suppression of Frzb/sFRP3 transcription in osteogenic sarcoma. Mandal, D., Srivastava, A., Mahlum, E., Desai, D., Maran, A., Yaszemski, M., Jalal, S.M., Gitelis, S., Bertoni, F., Damron, T., Irwin, R., O'connor, M., Schwartz, H., Bolander, M.E., Sarkar, G. Gene (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of Wnt activity induces heart formation from posterior mesoderm. Marvin, M.J., Di Rocco, G., Gardiner, A., Bush, S.M., Lassar, A.B. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential expression of WNTs and FRPs in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Imai, K., Morikawa, M., D'Armiento, J., Matsumoto, H., Komiya, K., Okada, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of secreted frizzled related proteins 3 and 4 in human ventricular myocardium correlates with apoptosis related gene expression. Schumann, H., Holtz, J., Zerkowski, H.R., Hatzfeld, M. Cardiovasc. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular and biological characterization of fusion regulatory proteins (FRPs): anti-FRP mAbs induced HIV-mediated cell fusion via an integrin system. Ohta, H., Tsurudome, M., Matsumura, H., Koga, Y., Morikawa, S., Kawano, M., Kusugawa, S., Komada, H., Nishio, M., Ito, Y. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Sites of action of carnitine and its derivatives on the cardiovascular system: interactions with membranes. Fritz, I.B., Arrigoni-Martelli, E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Sex and ethnic differences in the association of ASPN, CALM1, COL2A1, COMP, and FRZB with genetic susceptibility to osteoarthritis of the knee. Valdes, A.M., Loughlin, J., Oene, M.V., Chapman, K., Surdulescu, G.L., Doherty, M., Spector, T.D. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative analysis of the expression and regulation of Wnt5a, Fz4, and Frzb1 during digit formation and in micromass cultures. Chimal-Monroy, J., Montero, J.A., Gañan, Y., Macias, D., Garcia-Porrero, J.A., Hurle, J.M. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulated expression of secreted frizzled-related proteins in human retinal degeneration. Jones, S.E., Jomary, C., Grist, J., Stewart, H.J., Neal, M.J. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Frizzled-related protein variants are risk factors for hip osteoarthritis. Lane, N.E., Lian, K., Nevitt, M.C., Zmuda, J.M., Lui, L., Li, J., Wang, J., Fontecha, M., Umblas, N., Rosenbach, M., de Leon, P., Corr, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Transplantation of discordant xenografts: a review of progress. Platt, J.L., Vercellotti, G.M., Dalmasso, A.P., Matas, A.J., Bolman, R.M., Najarian, J.S., Bach, F.H. Immunol. Today (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Inhibition of the oncogene product p185erbB-2 in vitro and in vivo by geldanamycin and dihydrogeldanamycin derivatives. Schnur, R.C., Corman, M.L., Gallaschun, R.J., Cooper, B.A., Dee, M.F., Doty, J.L., Muzzi, M.L., Moyer, J.D., DiOrio, C.I., Barbacci, E.G. J. Med. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities