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Gene Review

Gpt  -  glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1300007J06Rik, 2310022B03Rik, ALT, ALT1, Alanine aminotransferase 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Gpt1

  • Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver [1].
  • The potential diagnostic value of ALT isoenzymes in liver disease was evaluated in an obese animal model [1].
  • The purified cALT1 will be helpful to develop isoenzyme-specific anti-bodies, which could further improve the diagnostic resolution of current ALT assays in drug safety studies [2].
  • The alanine transaminase activity of purified cALT1 was 229.81U/mg protein, which is approximately 38-fold higher than that of total soluble recombinant E. coli cell lysate, confirming that the enzyme is a functional ALT [2].
  • In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as other markers of liver damage [3].

Psychiatry related information on Gpt1

  • After several weeks of treatment, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase in 50% of patients treated with tacrine for Alzheimer's disease [4].

High impact information on Gpt1

  • Still, small but consistent elevation in the hepatic enzymes alanine (AST) and asparate (ALT) aminotransferase are observed, along with a 70% increase in spleen weight [5].
  • The LPS response in STAT3E-/- mice shows exaggerated inflammation and leukocyte infiltration in multiple organs combined with elevated activity of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, indicating organ damage [6].
  • Delivery of recombinant adiponectin into these mice dramatically alleviated hepatomegaly and steatosis (fatty liver) and also significantly attenuated inflammation and the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase [7].
  • Serum analysis in the same mice showed no elevation in blood urea nitrogen, indicating lack of effect on kidney function but a statistically significant (P =.046), albeit non-life-threatening, elevation in liver alanine aminotransferase levels [8].
  • Furthermore, in vivo antibody depletion of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in immune competent mice resulted in a reduction of subacute phase injury and inflammation as measured by serum GPT levels and neutrophil infiltration [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gpt1


Biological context of Gpt1


Anatomical context of Gpt1

  • Results showed that both anti-TNFalpha antibodies and pentoxifylline did not prevent FB1 hepatotoxicity; the latter was somewhat augmented, indicated by increases in circulating alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and incidence of apoptotic hepatocytes [19].
  • In contrast, the subacute phase (16-20 h) of liver injury, as measured by both serum GPT levels and percent hepatocellular necrosis, was dramatically reduced in T cell-deficient mice as compared with those with an intact immune system [9].
  • RESULTS: In 3-day bile duct ligated (BDL) animals, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes and serum ALT values were reduced in lpr versus wild-type animals [18].
  • Cell lines carrying the amylase/elastase/GPT construct may be useful as a selection system for cloning of pancreatic transcription activators [20].
  • In these livers, neutrophils did not transmigrate and liver injury was prevented (necrosis: < 5%; ALT: 40 +/- 3 U/L) [21].

Associations of Gpt1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Gpt1


Other interactions of Gpt1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gpt1


  1. Murine alanine aminotransferase: cDNA cloning, functional expression, and differential gene regulation in mouse fatty liver. Jadhao, S.B., Yang, R.Z., Lin, Q., Hu, H., Anania, F.A., Shuldiner, A.R., Gong, D.W., Jadaho, S.B. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1. Rajamohan, F., Nelms, L., Joslin, D.L., Lu, B., Reagan, W.J., Lawton, M. Protein Expr. Purif. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. Liu, Y., Binz, J., Numerick, M.J., Dennis, S., Luo, G., Desai, B., MacKenzie, K.I., Mansfield, T.A., Kliewer, S.A., Goodwin, B., Jones, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Tacrine inhibits topoisomerases and DNA synthesis to cause mitochondrial DNA depletion and apoptosis in mouse liver. Mansouri, A., Haouzi, D., Descatoire, V., Demeilliers, C., Sutton, A., Vadrot, N., Fromenty, B., Feldmann, G., Pessayre, D., Berson, A. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation in keratin 8-deficient FVB/N mice. Baribault, H., Penner, J., Iozzo, R.V., Wilson-Heiner, M. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Endothelial cells require STAT3 for protection against endotoxin-induced inflammation. Kano, A., Wolfgang, M.J., Gao, Q., Jacoby, J., Chai, G.X., Hansen, W., Iwamoto, Y., Pober, J.S., Flavell, R.A., Fu, X.Y. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin alleviates alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in mice. Xu, A., Wang, Y., Keshaw, H., Xu, L.Y., Lam, K.S., Cooper, G.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Targeting urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor on human glioblastoma tumors with diphtheria toxin fusion protein DTAT. Vallera, D.A., Li, C., Jin, N., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Hall, W.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. CD4(+) T-lymphocytes mediate ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory responses in mouse liver. Zwacka, R.M., Zhang, Y., Halldorson, J., Schlossberg, H., Dudus, L., Engelhardt, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. A sensitive molecular assay for mutagenesis in mammalian cells: reversion analysis in cells with a mutant shuttle vector gene integrated into chromosomal DNA. Gelbert, L.M., Davidson, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Time dependence of the selective modulation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by WR2721 in the mouse. Treskes, M., Boven, E., Holwerda, U., Pinedo, H.M., van der Vijgh, W.J. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Oval cells compensate for damage and replicative senescence of mature hepatocytes in mice with fatty liver disease. Yang, S., Koteish, A., Lin, H., Huang, J., Roskams, T., Dawson, V., Diehl, A.M. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Inhibition of inflammatory liver injury by a monoclonal antibody against lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Tanaka, Y., Kobayashi, K., Takahashi, A., Arai, I., Higuchi, S., Otomo, S., Habu, S., Nishimura, T. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Disrupted galectin-3 causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male mice. Nomoto, K., Tsuneyama, K., Abdel Aziz, H., Takahashi, H., Murai, Y., Cui, Z.G., Fujimoto, M., Kato, I., Hiraga, K., Hsu, D., Liu, F.T., Takano, Y. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Linkage between complement components 6 and 7 and glutamic pyruvate transaminase in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. van Oorschot, R.A., Birmingham, V., Porter, P.A., Kammerer, C.M., VandeBerg, J.L. Biochem. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Linomide prevents the lethal effect of anti-Fas antibody and reduces Fas-mediated ceramide production in mouse hepatocytes. Redondo, C., Flores, I., Gonzalez, A., Nagata, S., Carrera, A.C., Merida, I., Martinez-A, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. 16, 16 Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 prevents the development of fulminant hepatitis and blocks the induction of monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection. Abecassis, M., Falk, J.A., Makowka, L., Dindzans, V.J., Falk, R.E., Levy, G.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Fas enhances fibrogenesis in the bile duct ligated mouse: a link between apoptosis and fibrosis. Canbay, A., Higuchi, H., Bronk, S.F., Taniai, M., Sebo, T.J., Gores, G.J. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies and pentoxifylline is unable to prevent fumonisin hepatotoxicity in mice. He, Q., Sharma, R.P. Toxicon (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Transactivation of pancreas-specific gene sequences in somatic cell hybrids. Wu, K.J., Samuelson, L.C., Howard, G., Meisler, M.H., Darlington, G.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Parenchymal cell apoptosis as a signal for sinusoidal sequestration and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in murine models of endotoxin and Fas-antibody-induced liver injury. Lawson, J.A., Fisher, M.A., Simmons, C.A., Farhood, A., Jaeschke, H. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Chromosomal location of soluble glutamic-pyruvic transaminase-1 (Gpt-1) in the mouse. Eicher, E.M., Womack, J.E. Biochem. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of N-nitrosofenfluramine, a component of Chinese dietary supplement for weight loss, on CD-1 mice. Satoh, K., Nonaka, R., Tada, Y., Fukumori, N., Ogata, A., Yamada, A., Satoh, T., Nagai, F. Arch. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Physiological responses to a natural antioxidant flavonoid mixture, silymarin, in BALB/c mice: I induction of transforming growth factor beta1 and c-myc in liver with marginal effects on other genes. He, Q., Osuchowski, M.F., Johnson, V.J., Sharma, R.P. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of early handling of turkey poults on later responses to a dexamethasone-Escherichia coli challenge. 1. Production values and physiological response. Huff, G.R., Huff, W.E., Balog, J.M., Rath, N.C. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin 1beta protects mice from Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis and death. Takehara, T., Hayashi, N., Tatsumi, T., Kanto, T., Mita, E., Sasaki, Y., Kasahara, A., Hori, M. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate protects mice against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced hepatocyte apoptosis accompanied by increased heat shock protein 70 expression. Takano, M., Arai, T., Mokuno, Y., Nishimura, H., Nimura, Y., Yoshikai, Y. Cell Stress Chaperones (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Lipid peroxidation in mice fed a choline-deficient diet as evaluated by total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Yoshida, Y., Itoh, N., Hayakawa, M., Habuchi, Y., Inoue, R., Chen, Z.H., Cao, J., Cynshi, O., Niki, E. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Albumin and alkaline phosphatase as factors involved in the regulation of tyrosine phenol-lyase activity. Meadows, G.G., Elmer, G.W. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Chromosomal locations of the mouse fatty acid oxidation genes Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Cpt2, Acadvl, and metabolically related Crat gene. Cox, K.B., Johnson, K.R., Wood, P.A. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Essential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Yin, M., Wheeler, M.D., Kono, H., Bradford, B.U., Gallucci, R.M., Luster, M.I., Thurman, R.G. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 promotes neutrophil and T cell recruitment and migration in the postischemic liver. Khandoga, A., Kessler, J.S., Hanschen, M., Khandoga, A.G., Burggraf, D., Reichel, C., Hamann, G.F., Enders, G., Krombach, F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Liver disease with altered bile acid transport in Niemann-Pick C mice on a high-fat, 1% cholesterol diet. Erickson, R.P., Bhattacharyya, A., Hunter, R.J., Heidenreich, R.A., Cherrington, N.J. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of reactive oxygen intermediates in interleukin 10 release after cold liver ischemia and reperfusion in mice. Le Moine, O., Louis, H., Stordeur, P., Collet, J.M., Goldman, M., Devière, J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunotherapy directed against alpha-fetoprotein results in autoimmune liver disease during liver regeneration in mice. Geissler, M., Mohr, L., Weth, R., Köhler, G., Grimm, C.F., Krohne, T.U., von Weizsäcker, F., Blum, H.E. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The role of hepatic type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) during murine hemorrhagic shock. Lagoa, C.E., Vodovotz, Y., Stolz, D.B., Lhuillier, F., McCloskey, C., Gallo, D., Yang, R., Ustinova, E., Fink, M.P., Billiar, T.R., Mars, W.M. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Essential role for neutrophil recruitment to the liver in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. Bonder, C.S., Ajuebor, M.N., Zbytnuik, L.D., Kubes, P., Swain, M.G. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. A tumor-targeted and conditionally replicating oncolytic adenovirus vector expressing TRAIL for treatment of liver metastases. Sova, P., Ren, X.W., Ni, S., Bernt, K.M., Mi, J., Kiviat, N., Lieber, A. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
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