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Gene Review

CXCL11  -  chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta-R1, C-X-C motif chemokine 11, H174, I-TAC, IP-9, ...
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Disease relevance of CXCL11


Psychiatry related information on CXCL11

  • Baseline and 3-month evaluation of psychological performance through selected Beta R, Wechsler memory scale, visual discrimination, MMPI, and Zung's rated depression scale [6].

High impact information on CXCL11


Biological context of CXCL11


Anatomical context of CXCL11


Associations of CXCL11 with chemical compounds

  • Of interest, intracellular [Ca(2+)] did not rise in response to I-TAC, IP-10, or Mig [13].
  • Heparin displaces interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC, and Mig) sequestered in the vasculature and inhibits the transendothelial migration and arterial recruitment of T cells [16].
  • The average increase in gene expression after 10(-9) M estradiol treatment was 8.5-fold for CXCL10 and 7.7-fold for CXCL11 compared with medium alone [17].
  • Moreover, our study showed that progesterone induced CXCL10 and CXCL11 expression in 83% of endometrial samples tested [17].
  • In contrast, CXCL11 significantly decreased BrdU incorporation and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the positive staining of annexin V in EEC [18].
  • Second, upon further truncation, MMPs disperse the CXCL11 gradients in a novel way by proteolytic loss of a COOH-terminal GAG binding site [19].

Physical interactions of CXCL11


Regulatory relationships of CXCL11


Other interactions of CXCL11

  • The carboxyl-terminal domain and beta-arrestin1 were predominantly required by CXCL9 and CXCL10, and the third intracellular loop was predominantly required by CXCL11 [24].
  • The results showed differential expression of CXCL10, CXCL9, and CXCL11, which correlated with differences in the localization and cellular composition of the infiltrates [25].
  • Hence, CXCL11-induced T cell recruitment may be regulated by DPP IV-mediated proteolytic inactivation of CXCL11 and furthermore by desensitization of T cells via the degradation product CXCL11(3-73) [11].
  • Pretreatment of HAEC with the p38 inhibitor SB 20358 or the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin dose-dependently inhibited the chemotactic response to I-TAC [13].
  • For these cell types, IFN-gamma was a potent inducer of CXCL 11 transcription, which was synergistically enhanced by TNF-alpha [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CXCL11


  1. Expression of rat I-TAC/CXCL11/SCYA11 during central nervous system inflammation: comparison with other CXCR3 ligands. McColl, S.R., Mahalingam, S., Staykova, M., Tylaska, L.A., Fisher, K.E., Strick, C.A., Gladue, R.P., Neote, K.S., Willenborg, D.O. Lab. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Human IP-9: A keratinocyte-derived high affinity CXC-chemokine ligand for the IP-10/Mig receptor (CXCR3). Tensen, C.P., Flier, J., Van Der Raaij-Helmer, E.M., Sampat-Sardjoepersad, S., Van Der Schors, R.C., Leurs, R., Scheper, R.J., Boorsma, D.M., Willemze, R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Elevation of CXCR3-binding chemokines in urine indicates acute renal-allograft dysfunction. Hu, H., Aizenstein, B.D., Puchalski, A., Burmania, J.A., Hamawy, M.M., Knechtle, S.J. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of CXCR3 carboxyl terminus and third intracellular loop in receptor-mediated migration, adhesion and internalization in response to CXCL11. Dagan-Berger, M., Feniger-Barish, R., Avniel, S., Wald, H., Galun, E., Grabovsky, V., Alon, R., Nagler, A., Ben-Baruch, A., Peled, A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (CXCL11) in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Ogawa, N., Kawanami, T., Shimoyama, K., Ping, L., Sugai, S. Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Electrical stimulation of the centromedian thalamic nucleus in the treatment of convulsive seizures: a preliminary report. Velasco, F., Velasco, M., Ogarrio, C., Fanghanel, G. Epilepsia (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development. Burns, J.M., Summers, B.C., Wang, Y., Melikian, A., Berahovich, R., Miao, Z., Penfold, M.E., Sunshine, M.J., Littman, D.R., Kuo, C.J., Wei, K., McMaster, B.E., Wright, K., Howard, M.C., Schall, T.J. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential expression of three T lymphocyte-activating CXC chemokines by human atheroma-associated cells. Mach, F., Sauty, A., Iarossi, A.S., Sukhova, G.K., Neote, K., Libby, P., Luster, A.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma chemokine levels correlate with the outcome of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C. Butera, D., Marukian, S., Iwamaye, A.E., Hembrador, E., Chambers, T.J., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Charles, E.D., Talal, A.H., Jacobson, I.M., Rice, C.M., Dustin, L.B. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Eotaxin/CCL11 suppresses IL-8/CXCL8 secretion from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Cheng, S.S., Lukacs, N.W., Kunkel, S.L. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) on T cells cleaves the CXC chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and abolishes the stimulating but not the desensitizing potential of the chemokine. Ludwig, A., Schiemann, F., Mentlein, R., Lindner, B., Brandt, E. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. CXCR3 internalization following T cell-endothelial cell contact: preferential role of IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (CXCL11). Sauty, A., Colvin, R.A., Wagner, L., Rochat, S., Spertini, F., Luster, A.D. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. CXCR3 chemokine receptor-induced chemotaxis in human airway epithelial cells: role of p38 MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways. Shahabuddin, S., Ji, R., Wang, P., Brailoiu, E., Dun, N., Yang, Y., Aksoy, M.O., Kelsen, S.G. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 in human lung cancer. Nakanishi, T., Imaizumi, K., Hasegawa, Y., Kawabe, T., Hashimoto, N., Okamoto, M., Shimokata, K. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The T-lymphocyte chemoattractant Mig is highly expressed in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Abu El-Asrar, A.M., Struyf, S., Al-Kharashi, S.A., Missotten, L., Van Damme, J., Geboes, K. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Heparin displaces interferon-gamma-inducible chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC, and Mig) sequestered in the vasculature and inhibits the transendothelial migration and arterial recruitment of T cells. Ranjbaran, H., Wang, Y., Manes, T.D., Yakimov, A.O., Akhtar, S., Kluger, M.S., Pober, J.S., Tellides, G. Circulation (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Recruitment of uterine NK cells: induction of CXC chemokine ligands 10 and 11 in human endometrium by estradiol and progesterone. Sentman, C.L., Meadows, S.K., Wira, C.R., Eriksson, M. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. The Expression and Possible Roles of Chemokine CXCL11 and Its Receptor CXCR3 in the Human Endometrium. Hirota, Y., Osuga, Y., Koga, K., Yoshino, O., Hirata, T., Morimoto, C., Harada, M., Takemura, Y., Nose, E., Yano, T., Tsutsumi, O., Taketani, Y. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Matrix metalloproteinase processing of CXCL11/I-TAC results in loss of chemoattractant activity and altered glycosaminoglycan binding. Cox, J.H., Dean, R.A., Roberts, C.R., Overall, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of CXCL11 as a STAT3-Dependent Gene Induced by IFN. Yang, C.H., Wei, L., Pfeffer, S.R., Du, Z., Murti, A., Valentine, W.J., Zheng, Y., Pfeffer, L.M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Proteolytic processing of CXCL11 by CD13/aminopeptidase N impairs CXCR3 and CXCR7 binding and signaling and reduces lymphocyte and endothelial cell migration. Proost, P., Mortier, A., Loos, T., Vandercappellen, J., Gouwy, M., Ronsse, I., Schutyser, E., Put, W., Parmentier, M., Struyf, S., Van Damme, J. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Interferon-inducible protein 9 (CXCL11)-induced cell motility in keratinocytes requires calcium flux-dependent activation of mu-calpain. Satish, L., Blair, H.C., Glading, A., Wells, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors shapes the inflammatory response in rejecting human liver transplants. Goddard, S., Williams, A., Morland, C., Qin, S., Gladue, R., Hubscher, S.G., Adams, D.H. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Intracellular domains of CXCR3 that mediate CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 function. Colvin, R.A., Campanella, G.S., Sun, J., Luster, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential expression of CXCR3 targeting chemokines CXCL10, CXCL9, and CXCL11 in different types of skin inflammation. Flier, J., Boorsma, D.M., van Beek, P.J., Nieboer, C., Stoof, T.J., Willemze, R., Tensen, C.P. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Genomic organization, sequence and transcriptional regulation of the human CXCL 11(1) gene. Tensen, C.P., Flier, J., Rampersad, S.S., Sampat-Sardjoepersad, S., Scheper, R.J., Boorsma, D.M., Willemze, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Optic neuritis: chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands. Sørensen, T.L., Roed, H., Sellebjerg, F. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Elevated serum levels of the CXCR3 chemokine ITAC are associated with the development of transplant coronary artery disease. Kao, J., Kobashigawa, J., Fishbein, M.C., MacLellan, W.R., Burdick, M.D., Belperio, J.A., Strieter, R.M. Circulation (2003) [Pubmed]
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