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Disease relevance of Ursidae


High impact information on Ursidae


Chemical compound and disease context of Ursidae


Biological context of Ursidae

  • In East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus), anthropogenic organohalogen compounds (OHCs) (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) contributed to renal lesions and are believed to reduce bone mineral density [14].
  • Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears [15].
  • The present study demonstrates that in the black bear seasonal changes in spermatogenesis are accompanied by changes in the immunolocalization of testicular steroidogenic enzymes that are correlated with changes in serum testosterone and oestradiol concentrations [16].
  • The combined analyses of nuclear IRBP and TTR datasets not only corroborated prior hypotheses, positioning the spectacled bear most basally and grouping the brown and polar bear together but also provided new insights into the bear phylogeny, suggesting the sister-taxa association of sloth bear and sun bear with strong support [17].
  • The purpose was to relate histology to concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) [i.e., sum (Sigma)PCBs, SigmaDDTs, SigmaHCHs, SigmaCHLs, HCB, Dieldrin and SigmaPBDEs] determined in adipose tissue, as studies on polar bears have indicated that some OHCs act as immunosuppressive agents [18].

Anatomical context of Ursidae


Associations of Ursidae with chemical compounds

  • Ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores [24].
  • No increases in serum P4 were observed in nonpregnant black and polar bears [25].
  • Annual testosterone rhythm in the black bear (Ursus americanus) [26].
  • Serum estradiol (E2) was elevated in nonpregnant and pregnant polar bears 2 mo prior to the time of expected implantation [25].
  • Our results suggest that PRL may play a luteotropic role in both pregnant and pseudopregnant bears, and is possibly responsible for inducing reactivation of the dormant corpus luteum that precedes implantation in the Japanese black bear [27].

Gene context of Ursidae


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ursidae


  1. DNA-confirmed Taenia solium cysticercosis in black bears (Ursus americanus) from California. Theis, J.H., Cleary, M., Syvanen, M., Gilson, A., Swift, P., Banks, J., Johnson, E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of the extracellular region of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), and prolactin receptor (PRLr) genes and their expression in the testis of the black bear (Ursus americanus). Howell-Skalla, L., Bunick, D., Bleck, G., Nelson, R.A., Bahr, J.M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Studies of bile lipids and bile acids of wild North American black bears in Nova Scotia, showing a high content of ursodeoxycholic acid. MacDonald, A.C., Williams, C.N. J. Surg. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Enterotoxemia associated with beta2 toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A in two Asiatic black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus). Greco, G., Madio, A., Martella, V., Campolo, M., Corrente, M., Buonavoglia, D., Buonavoglia, C. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Pharmacological modifications of endogenous antioxidant enzymes with special reference to the effects of deprenyl: a possible antioxidant strategy. Kitani, K., Kanai, S., Ivy, G.O., Carrillo, M.C. Mech. Ageing Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Ratio of serum urea to serum creatinine in wild black bears. Nelson, R.A., Beck, T.D., Steiger, D.L. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in the Arctoidea. Zhang, Y.P., Ryder, O.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. N-terminal heterogeneity of parenchymal and cerebrovascular Abeta deposits. Tekirian, T.L., Saido, T.C., Markesbery, W.R., Russell, M.J., Wekstein, D.R., Patel, E., Geddes, J.W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Synergistic modulation by chloride and organic phosphates of hemoglobin from bear (Ursus arctos). Coletta, M., Condo, S.G., Scatena, R., Clementi, M.E., Baroni, S., Sletten, S.N., Brix, O., Giardina, B. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Carboxy terminal of beta-amyloid deposits in aged human, canine, and polar bear brains. Tekirian, T.L., Cole, G.M., Russell, M.J., Yang, F., Wekstein, D.R., Patel, E., Snowdon, D.A., Markesbery, W.R., Geddes, J.W. Neurobiol. Aging (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Status of trichinosis in bears in the Atlantic provinces of Canada 1971--1976. Smith, H.J. Can. J. Comp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard. Wiig, O., Derocher, A.E., Cronin, M.M., Skaare, J.U. J. Wildl. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyroid cystadenoma, colloid goiter, and hypothyroidism in an American black bear (Ursus americanus). Storms, T.N., Beazley, S.L., Schumacher, J., Ramsay, E.C. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Do organohalogen contaminants contribute to histopathology in liver from East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)? Sonne, C., Dietz, R., Leifsson, P.S., Born, E.W., Letcher, R.J., Kirkegaard, M., Muir, D.C., Riget, F.F., Hyldstrup, L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears. Chauhan, V., Sheikh, A., Chauhan, A., Tsiouris, J., Malik, M., Vaughan, M. Biochimie (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in the male black bear Ursus americanus. Tsubota, T., Howell-Skalla, L., Nitta, H., Osawa, Y., Mason, J.I., Meiers, P.G., Nelson, R.A., Bahr, J.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Yu, L., Li, Q.W., Ryder, O.A., Zhang, Y.P. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Histology of selected immunological organs in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland in relation to concentrations of organohalogen contaminants. Kirkegaard, M., Sonne, C., Leifsson, P.S., Dietz, R., Born, E.W., Muir, D.C., Letcher, R.J. Sci. Total Environ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. An integrated analytical method for determination of polychlorinated aryl methyl sulfone metabolites and polychlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in biological matrices. Letcher, R.J., Norstrom, R.J., Bergman, A. Anal. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Relationships between PCBs and thyroid hormones and retinol in female and male polar bears. Braathen, M., Derocher, A.E., Wiig, Ø., Sørmo, E.G., Lie, E., Skaare, J.U., Jenssen, B.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Catalytic and immunologic characterization of hepatic and lung cytochromes P450 in the polar bear. Bandiera, S.M., Torok, S.M., Lin, S., Ramsay, M.A., Norstrom, R.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces an acrosome reaction in giant panda spermatozoa and enhances their penetration of salt-stored porcine oocytes. Zhang, M., Tang, H., Shen, G., Zhou, B., Wu, Z., Peng, Z., Zhang, J., Yan, J., Xia, G. Theriogenology (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Some heavy metals, essential elements, and chlorinated hydrocarbons in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Norheim, G., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, Ø. Environ. Pollut. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ursidae: biliary bile acids of bears, pandas, and related carnivores. Hagey, L.R., Crombie, D.L., Espinosa, E., Carey, M.C., Igimi, H., Hofmann, A.F. J. Lipid Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Annual changes in serum sex steroids in male and female black (Ursus americanus) and polar (Ursus maritimus) bears. Palmer, S.S., Nelson, R.A., Ramsay, M.A., Stirling, I., Bahr, J.M. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Annual testosterone rhythm in the black bear (Ursus americanus). McMillin, J.M., Seal, U.S., Rogers, L., Erickson, A.W. Biol. Reprod. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in sex steroids, gonadotropins, prolactin, and inhibin in pregnant and nonpregnant Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Sato, M., Tsubota, T., Komatsu, T., Watanabe, G., Taya, K., Murase, T., Kita, I., Kudo, T. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Cloning and mapping MC1R to chromosome 16 in giant panda. Liu, X.H., Zhao, Y.H., Zhang, Y.H., Liu, W., Li, N. Anim. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Cloning and sequence analysis of FSH and LH in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Liao, M.J., Zhu, M.Y., Zhang, Z.H., Zhang, A.J., Li, G.H., Sheng, F.J. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Sequence comparison of the dopamine receptor D4 exon III repetitive region in several species of the order Carnivora. Inoue-Murayama, M., Matsuura, N., Murayama, Y., Tsubota, T., Iwasaki, T., Kitagawa, H., Ito, S. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Use of fluoxetine for the treatment of stereotypical pacing behavior in a captive polar bear. Poulsen, E.M., Honeyman, V., Valentine, P.A., Teskey, G.C. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein in livers of polar bears (Thalarctos maritimus). Heier, A., Gröne, A., Völlm, J., Kübber-Heiss, A., Bacciarini, L.N. Vet. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Immobilization of polar bears with carfentanil. Haigh, J.C., Lee, L.J., Schweinsburg, R.E. J. Wildl. Dis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Comparative physiologic effects of telazol, medetomidine-ketamine, and medetomidine-telazol in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Caulkett, N.A., Cattet, M.R., Caulkett, J.M., Polischuk, S.C. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus. Urashima, T., Sumiyoshi, W., Nakamura, T., Arai, I., Saito, T., Komatsu, T., Tsubota, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
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