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MeSH Review

Injections, Epidural

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Chemical compound and disease context of Injections, Epidural


Biological context of Injections, Epidural


Anatomical context of Injections, Epidural


Associations of Injections, Epidural with chemical compounds


Gene context of Injections, Epidural

  • Results were contrasted to those observed after midthoracic (T6-T9, n = 13) and lumbar (L2-T12, n = 10) epidural injection of an identical dose of bupivacaine or saline (n = 10) [31].
  • Epidural injection of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor attenuates pain-related behavior following application of nucleus pulposus to the nerve root in the rat [32].
  • However, within 50 min after the bolus epidural injection of somatostatin, the concentration per ml perfusate increased from 0.1 +/- 0.02 ng/ml to 138 +/- 102 ng/ml (P less than 0.001) and declined to 4 +/- 1.7 ng/ml after 120 min [33].
  • Epidural injection does cause an increase in CSF pressure [34].
  • The epidural injection of a bolus of 250 micrograms somatostatin followed by continuous epidural infusion provided complete postoperative relief of pain in eight patients who had undergone abdominal surgery; no other analgesics were required [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Injections, Epidural


  1. Relative potency of epidural to intrathecal clonidine differs between acute thermal pain and capsaicin-induced allodynia. Eisenach, J.C., Hood, D.D., Curry, R. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica: a randomised, double blind, controlled clinical trial. Valat, J.P., Giraudeau, B., Rozenberg, S., Goupille, P., Bourgeois, P., Micheau-Beaugendre, V., Soubrier, M., Richard, S., Thomas, E. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Single-dose, sustained-release epidural morphine in the management of postoperative pain after elective cesarean delivery: results of a multicenter randomized controlled study. Carvalho, B., Riley, E., Cohen, S.E., Gambling, D., Palmer, C., Huffnagle, H.J., Polley, L., Muir, H., Segal, S., Lihou, C., Manvelian, G. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Back pain associated with the epidural injection of fentanyl. Hannallah, M. Anesth. Analg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Subarachnoid spread of epidural local anaesthetic following dural puncture. Leach, A., Smith, G.B. Anaesthesia. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Delayed presentation of an extradural abscess in a patient with alcohol abuse. Nordström, O., Sandin, R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Cushing's syndrome from epidural methylprednisolone. Tuel, S.M., Meythaler, J.M., Cross, L.L. Pain (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Failure of epidural opioid to control cancer pain in a patient previously treated with massive doses of intravenous opioid. Tanelian, D.L., Cousins, M.J. Pain (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Epidural narcotics in volunteers: sensitivity to pain and to carbon dioxide. Bromage, P.R., Camporesi, E., Leslie, J. Pain (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Inadvertent caudal epidural injection of cefazolin. McHaourab, A., Ruiz, F. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of the caudal and lumbar approaches to the epidural space. Price, C.M., Rogers, P.D., Prosser, A.S., Arden, N.K. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of lidocaine on the meninges in an experimental animal model. Nguyen, C., Ho, K.C., Haughton, V.M. Investigative radiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Ropivacaine undergoes slower systemic absorption from the caudal epidural space in children than bupivacaine. Karmakar, M.K., Aun, C.S., Wong, E.L., Wong, A.S., Chan, S.K., Yeung, C.K. Anesth. Analg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Lysis of adhesions and epidural injection of steroid/local anaesthetic during epiduroscopy potentially alleviate low back and leg pain in elderly patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Igarashi, T., Hirabayashi, Y., Seo, N., Saitoh, K., Fukuda, H., Suzuki, H. British journal of anaesthesia. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Flaccid paraparesis following obstetrical epidural anesthesia: possible role of benzyl alcohol. Craig, D.B., Habib, G.G. Anesth. Analg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Left ventricular contractility is reduced by hypercapnic acidosis and thoracolumbar epidural anesthesia in rabbits. Mizukoshi, Y., Shibata, K., Yoshida, M. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Monitoring maternal heart rate during epidural injection of a test dose containing epinephrine. Chestnut, D.H., Weiner, C.P. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacokinetics and dynamics of intravenous, intrathecal, and epidural clonidine in sheep. Castro, M.I., Eisenach, J.C. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetics of alfentanil after epidural administration. Investigation of systemic absorption kinetics with a stable isotope method. Burm, A.G., Haak-van der Lely, F., van Kleef, J.W., Jacobs, C.J., Bovill, J.G., Vletter, A.A., van den Heuvel, R.P., Onkenhout, W. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential neural effects of epidural anesthetics. Cusick, J.F., Myklebust, J.B., Abram, S.E. Anesthesiology (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Does ritodrine worsen maternal hypotension during epidural anesthesia in gravid ewes? Chestnut, D.H., Pollack, K.L., Thompson, C.S., DeBruyn, C.S., Weiner, C.P. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Epidural clonidine depresses sympathetic nerve activity in humans by a supraspinal mechanism. Kirnö, K., Lundin, S., Elam, M. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Epidural clonidine treatment for refractory reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Rauck, R.L., Eisenach, J.C., Jackson, K., Young, L.D., Southern, J. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Shivering during epidural anesthesia. Sessler, D.I., Ponte, J. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of venous return on baroreflex control of heart rate during lumbar epidural anesthesia in humans. Baron, J.F., Decaux-Jacolot, A., Edouard, A., Berdeaux, A., Samii, K. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Postoperative analgesia in children using continuous s.c. morphine. McNicol, R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Interpleural anesthetics in the dog: differential somatic neural blockade. Riegler, F.X., VadeBoncouer, T.R., Pelligrino, D.A. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Epidural injections of bupivacaine, morphine, fentanyl, lofentanil, and DADL in chronically implanted rats: a pharmacologic and pathologic study. Durant, P.A., Yaksh, T.L. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Systemic absorption and block after epidural injection of ropivacaine in healthy volunteers. Emanuelsson, B.M., Persson, J., Alm, C., Heller, A., Gustafsson, L.L. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Methylprednisolone acetate does not cause inflammatory changes in the epidural space. Cicala, R.S., Turner, R., Moran, E., Henley, R., Wong, R., Evans, J. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. High thoracic segmental epidural anesthesia diminishes sympathetic outflow to the legs, despite restriction of sensory blockade to the upper thorax. Hopf, H.B., Weissbach, B., Peters, J. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Epidural injection of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor attenuates pain-related behavior following application of nucleus pulposus to the nerve root in the rat. Kawakami, M., Matsumoto, T., Hashizume, H., Kuribayashi, K., Tamaki, T. J. Orthop. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Permeability of epidural somatostatin and morphine into the intrathecal space of dogs. Chrubasik, J., Bonath, K., Cramer, H., Rissler, K., Wünsch, E. Regul. Pept. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Epidural injection does cause an increase in CSF pressure. Ramsay, M., Roberts, C. Anesth. Analg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. The effect of epidural somatostatin on postoperative pain. Chrubasik, J., Meynadier, J., Scherpereel, P., Wünsch, E. Anesth. Analg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. The effects of the addition of sufentanil to 0.125% bupivacaine on the quality of analgesia during labor and on the incidence of instrumental deliveries. Vertommen, J.D., Vandermeulen, E., Van Aken, H., Vaes, L., Soetens, M., Van Steenberge, A., Mourisse, P., Willaert, J., Noorduin, H., Devlieger, H. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Sensory and motor blockade during epidural analgesia with 1%, 0.75%, and 0.5% ropivacaine--a double-blind study. Zaric, D., Axelsson, K., Nydahl, P.A., Philipsson, L., Larsson, P., Jansson, J.R. Anesth. Analg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Reversal of bupivacaine epidural anesthesia by intermittent epidural injections of crystalloid solutions. Johnson, M.D., Burger, G.A., Mushlin, P.S., Arthur, G.R., Data, S. Anesth. Analg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Pain relief in labour using epidural pethidine with adrenaline. Perriss, B.W., Malins, A.F. Anaesthesia. (1981) [Pubmed]
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