The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Dichloroiron     dichloroiron

Synonyms: FeCl2, Ferro 66, HSDB 459, CHEBI:30812, Rok (1)hnite, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of dichloroiron

  • Arterial thrombosis was obtained in the anaesthetized rat by chemical (FeCl2) stimulation of a common carotid and i.v. infused hirunorm (1-3 mg/kg/30 min) inhibited it dose-dependently; r-hirudin was partly active only at 3 mg/kg, but hirulog-1 was inactive at either dose [1].
  • Incubation of human erythrocytes in the presence of FeCl2 caused 11.0 +/- 3.2% hemolysis (control 0.95 +/- 0.14%) [2].
  • Effects of antiperoxidants on FeCl2-induced lipid peroxidation and focal edema in rat brain [3].
  • The FeCl2 (0.05 mM) significantly increased DA-M toxicity, while desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, totally abolished the additive toxicity of iron [4].
  • Before induction of subcutaneous calcinosis by topical treatment with the direct calcergen, KMnO4, or by challenging dihydrotachysterol-sensitized animals with FeCl2, control specimens contain no gamma-carboxyglutamic acid [5].

High impact information on dichloroiron

  • Porcine lung surfactant was exposed to conditions known to cause lipid peroxidation (0.2 mM FeCl2 + 0.1 mM H2O2 or 5 microM CuCl2) [6].
  • Samples exposed to FeCl2 + H2O2 had significantly diminished surface tension lowering ability in vivo as indicated by their reduced ability to improve lung compliance of surfactant-deficient fetal rabbits [6].
  • The alkylation of the Brookhart-Gibson {2,6-[2,6-(i-Pr)2PhN=C(CH3)]2(C5H3N)} FeCl2 precatalyst with 2 equiv of LiCH2Si(CH3)3 led to the isolation of several catalytically very active products depending on the reaction conditions [7].
  • H2O2 collected in the vial was converted to hydroxyl radicals (*OH) by FeCl2 catalysis [8].
  • Exposure to NMDA alone did not lead to cell death in immature cultured neurons, however, while further addition of FeCl2 invariably induced neuronal cell death 24 h after exposure [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of dichloroiron

  • In a rat model of arterial thrombosis induced by topical FeCl2 application, intravenous administration of AT-1459, argatroban, and dalteparin improved the vessel patency significantly (P < 0.01) at 0.6 mg/kg plus 0.6 mg/kg/h, 0.6 mg/kg plus 2.4 mg/kg/h, and 300 IU/kg plus 600 IU/kg/h, respectively [10].
  • In this experiment, rats were pretreated with 500 mg/kg DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate prior to the injection of 3 microliter of 100 mM FeCl2 into the dorsal hippocampus, or induction of convulsive seizures by s.c. injection of 0.8 mg/100 g bicucullin [11].

Biological context of dichloroiron


Anatomical context of dichloroiron


Associations of dichloroiron with other chemical compounds


Gene context of dichloroiron

  • Similar suppression of the abnormal taste behavior was observed when mvl mutants were fed MnCl2 or FeCl2 only at the adult stage [26].
  • These data indicate that batroxobin-induced lung vasculature fibrin deposition in rats, unlike the FeCl2 model, is sensitive to the impact of endogenous PAI-1 on fibrinolysis [27].
  • In contrast, CoCl2, ZnCl2 and FeCl2 caused little induction of haem oxygenase and hsp70 mRNAs, whereas the porphyrin complexes of these metals strongly induced haem oxygenase mRNA, without influencing the level of hsp70 mRNA [28].
  • Alterations in glutamine synthetase activity by FeCl2-induced focal and kindled amygdaloid seizures [29].
  • Win 55212-2 reduced the formation of reactive oxidative species in cortical neuron cultures treated with FeCl2, consistent with an antioxidant action [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of dichloroiron


  1. Experimental pharmacology of hirunorm: a novel synthetic peptide thrombin inhibitor. Cirillo, R., Lippi, A., Subissi, A., Agnelli, G., Criscuoli, M. Thromb. Haemost. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Generation of free radicals in lipid emulsion used in parenteral nutrition. Pitkänen, O., Hallman, M., Andersson, S. Pediatr. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of antiperoxidants on FeCl2-induced lipid peroxidation and focal edema in rat brain. Willmore, L.J., Rubin, J.J. Exp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Dopamine-melanin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells; possible implications for the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Offen, D., Ziv, I., Barzilai, A., Gorodin, S., Glater, E., Hochman, A., Melamed, E. Neurochem. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Calcergy and calciphylaxis: timed appearance of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and osteocalcin in mineral deposits. Lian, J.B., Boivin, G., Patterson-Allen, P., Grynpas, M., Walzer, C. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Exposure of the hydrophobic components of porcine lung surfactant to oxidant stress alters surface tension properties. Gilliard, N., Heldt, G.P., Loredo, J., Gasser, H., Redl, H., Merritt, T.A., Spragg, R.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Metal versus ligand alkylation in the reactivity of the (bis-iminopyridinato)Fe catalyst. Scott, J., Gambarotta, S., Korobkov, I., Budzelaar, P.H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Elevation of hydrogen peroxide after spinal cord injury detected by using the Fenton reaction. Liu, D., Liu, J., Wen, J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Blockade by ferrous iron of Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels in immature cultured rat cortical neurons. Nakamichi, N., Ohno, H., Nakamura, Y., Hirai, T., Kuramoto, N., Yoneda, Y. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The antithrombotic efficacy of AT-1459, a novel, direct thrombin inhibitor, in rat models of venous and arterial thrombosis. Cho, J.H., Yun, C.H., Seo, H.S., Koga, T., Dan, T., Koo, B.A., Kim, H.Y. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of iron-induced hippocampal peroxidation in acute epileptogenesis. Willmore, L.J., Triggs, W.J., Gray, J.D. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Interaction between free radicals and excitatory amino acids in the blood-brain barrier disruption after iron injury in the rat. Zuccarello, M., Anderson, D.K. J. Neurotrauma (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Alpha-synuclein and its neurotoxic fragment inhibit dopamine uptake into rat striatal synaptosomes. Relationship to nitric oxide. Adamczyk, A., Kaźmierczak, A., Strosznajder, J.B. Neurochem. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo evidence against clomethiazole being neuroprotective against MDMA ('ecstasy')-induced degeneration of rat brain 5-HT nerve terminals by a free radical scavenging mechanism. Colado, M.I., O'Shea, E., Esteban, B., Granados, R., Green, A.R. Neuropharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Protective effect of melatonin against in vitro iron ions and 7 mT 50 Hz magnetic field-induced DNA damage in rat lymphocytes. Jajte, J., Zmyślony, M., Palus, J., Dziubałtowska, E., Rajkowska, E. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Systematic expression of immediate early genes and intensive astrocyte activation induced by intrastriatal ferrous iron injection. Hironishi, M., Ueyama, E., Senba, E. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Hydroxyl radicals generated in vivo kill neurons in the rat spinal cord: electrophysiological, histological, and neurochemical results. Liu, D., Yang, R., Yan, X., McAdoo, D.J. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Mitochondrial function and antioxidative defence in human muscle: effects of endurance training and oxidative stress. Tonkonogi, M., Walsh, B., Svensson, M., Sahlin, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Regional difference in responsiveness of adenosine-sensitive cyclic AMP-generating systems in chronic epileptic cerebral cortex of the rat. Hattori, Y. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Lipid peroxidation-induced inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake in rat brain synaptosomes: protection by glucocorticoids. Braughler, J.M. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduction of glutamine synthetase specific activity in cultured astroglia by ferrous chloride. Tiffany-Castiglioni, E., Roberts, J.A., Sheeler-Gough, L.V. J. Neurosci. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium enhances in vitro free radical-induced damage to brain synaptosomes, mitochondria, and cultured spinal cord neurons. Braughler, J.M., Duncan, L.A., Goodman, T. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Direct detection of ascorbyl radical in experimental brain injury: microdialysis and an electron spin resonance spectroscopic study. Kihara, T., Sakata, S., Ikeda, M. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Strand breakage and decreased molecular weight of DNA induced by specific metal compounds. Robison, S.H., Cantoni, O., Costa, M. Carcinogenesis (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase by streptonigrin. Merryfield, M.L., Lardy, H.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Metal ions suppress the abnormal taste behavior of the Drosophila mutant malvolio. Orgad, S., Nelson, H., Segal, D., Nelson, N. J. Exp. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Lipopolysaccharide attenuates thrombolysis in batroxobin-induced lung vasculature fibrin deposition but not in ferrous chloride-induced carotid artery thrombus in rats: role of endogenous PAI-1. Wang, Y.X., Dong, N., Wu, C., Martin-McNulty, B., Fitch, R.M., da Cunha, V., Vicelette, J., Tran, K., Vergona, R., Sullivan, M.E., Morser, J., Wu, Q. Thromb. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of inorganic metals and metalloporphyrins in the induction of haem oxygenase and heat-shock protein 70 in human hepatoma cells. Mitani, K., Fujita, H., Fukuda, Y., Kappas, A., Sassa, S. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Alterations in glutamine synthetase activity by FeCl2-induced focal and kindled amygdaloid seizures. Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.C., Peterson, S.L., Castiglioni, A.J. J. Neurosci. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Involvement of protein kinase A in cannabinoid receptor-mediated protection from oxidative neuronal injury. Kim, S.H., Won, S.J., Mao, X.O., Jin, K., Greenberg, D.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. 5-aminocoumarans: dual inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and dopamine release with protective effects against central nervous system trauma and ischemia. Ohkawa, S., Fukatsu, K., Miki, S., Hashimoto, T., Sakamoto, J., Doi, T., Nagai, Y., Aono, T. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Repletion of copper-deficient mice and brindled mice with copper or iron. Prohaska, J.R. J. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Detection of an increase in ascorbate radical in an irradiated experimental tumour system using ESR. Isoda, H., Akagi, K., Hasegawa, T., Tanaka, Y., Kihara, T., Sakata, S., Ikeda, M. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities