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Chemical Compound Review

Pevaryl     1-[2-[(4- chlorophenyl)methoxy]-2- (2,4...

Synonyms: Econazol, Palavale, Ecostatin, econazole, Econazolum, ...
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Disease relevance of Pevaryl

  • In view of recent evidence that the imidazole antifungals econazole (EC) and miconazole (MC) inhibit TG-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in normal rat thymocytes, we investigated the effect of these agents on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and cell survival in WEHI7.2 mouse lymphoma cells and human CEMT-cell leukemia cells [1].
  • The complexation of econazole with the mucoadhesive polycarbophil was found to significantly improve the therapeutic benefit of the drug in the topical treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis in mice, while no difference in the antimycotic activity exerted by econazole and polycarbophil-econazole could be detected in vitro [2].
  • In these trials, sulconazole generally displayed similar efficacy to clotrimazole, econazole and miconazole, although in a few studies sulconazole produced better and/or quicker improvement than clotrimazole or miconazole in small numbers of patients with tinea pedis [3].
  • Liposomal econazole was successfully administered to tumor bearing mice at 50 mg/kg, and no significant toxicities attributable to econazole were observed [4].
  • Breast cancer colonies were reduced 60-500-fold or more after exposure to econazole while hemopoietic colonies were typically reduced only 2-fold [5].

Psychiatry related information on Pevaryl


High impact information on Pevaryl


Chemical compound and disease context of Pevaryl


Biological context of Pevaryl


Anatomical context of Pevaryl

  • These observations indicate that (1) cytochrome P-450 does not mediate store-regulated calcium influx, and (2) econazole probably inhibits store-regulated calcium influx by an alternative mechanism, such as interaction with plasma membrane calcium channels [21].
  • 5. Clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole and CN- also significantly inhibited intracellular free Ca2+ signals and cell shortening in rat single ventricular myocytes [22].
  • The effect of Stp on the entry of Ca2+ in activated (mAb C305) Jurkat lymphocytes was dose-related and was not the result of a direct inhibition of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels based on an absence of effect on the Tg-dependent entry of Ca2+ and the use of Ca2+ channel blockers (econazole and Ni2+) [23].
  • RESULTS: Econazole (Ec) and ketotifen (Ke) were variably effective against human and murine leukemia cell lines after 24 hours of incubation [24].
  • 3. Econazole dialysed from the pipette into the cytosol at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30 microM did not reduce Icrac, or quantitatively affect Icrac block by extracellularly applied econazole [17].

Associations of Pevaryl with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Pevaryl

  • We observed that thapsigargin (TG) stimulated MAPK activation by store-operated calcium (SOC) influx via opening of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels as tyrphostin-A9, a CRAC channel blocker, and two SOC influx inhibitors, econazole and SKF-96365, diminished the action of the former [30].
  • 4. Ruthenium red and econazole appeared to be the most effective inhibitors of currents through ECaC1, with IC(50) values of 111 nM and 1.3 microM, respectively, whereas the selective SOC inhibitor, SKF96365, was nearly ineffective [31].
  • SK&F 96365 and econazole but not GdCl(3) inhibited PACAP-induced CA release [32].
  • The agonist-evoked calcium plateau was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the Cl-channel blocker NPPB, by the divalent cation Ni2+ and by the imidazole antimycotic econazole [33].
  • Inhibition of TRPM2 channels by the antifungal agents clotrimazole and econazole [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pevaryl

  • Stopped-flow fluorimetry indicated that econazole had no detectable effect on the early time course of agonist-evoked Mn2+ entry or rises in [Ca2+]i. These data confirm the existence of a Ca2+ entry pathway in human platelets which is activated by depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores [35].
  • The total econazole absorbed into the supporting bed cotton ball in the test group was nearly 200-fold greater than that in the control group (p = 0.008) over the 14-day period [36].
  • We further evaluated the effect of econazole on breast cancer cells present in mobilized hemopoietic cells obtained from patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support [5].
  • A Parenteral Econazole Formulation Using a Novel Micelle-to-Liposome Transfer Method: In Vitro Characterization and Tumor Growth Delay in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Model [4].
  • Patients received a single course of econazole given as 1 vaginal pessary (150 mg) on 3 consecutive days [37].


  1. Imidazole antifungals Miconazole and Econazole induce apoptosis in mouse lymphoma and human T cell leukemia cells: regulation by Bcl-2 and potential role of calcium. Sobecks, R., McCormick, T.S., Distelhorst, C.W. Cell Death Differ. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Control of Candida albicans murine vaginitis by topical administration of polycarbophil-econazole complex. Ghelardi, E., Tavanti, A., Lupetti, A., Celandroni, F., Boldrini, E., Campa, M., Senesi, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Sulconazole. A review of its antimicrobial activity and therapeutic use in superficial dermatomycoses. Benfield, P., Clissold, S.P. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. A Parenteral Econazole Formulation Using a Novel Micelle-to-Liposome Transfer Method: In Vitro Characterization and Tumor Growth Delay in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Model. Cogswell, S., Berger, S., Waterhouse, D., Bally, M.B., Wasan, E.K. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Purging of contaminating breast cancer cells from hematopoietic progenitor cell preparations using activation enhanced cell death. Zhang, Y., Crump, M., Berge, S.A. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. A population-based case-control teratological study of vaginal econazole treatment during pregnancy. Czeizel, A.E., Kazy, Z., Vargha, P. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation of a full-length cDNA insert encoding human aromatase system cytochrome P-450 and its expression in nonsteroidogenic cells. Corbin, C.J., Graham-Lorence, S., McPhaul, M., Mason, J.I., Mendelson, C.R., Simpson, E.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytochrome P450 may regulate plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability according to the filling state of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. Alvarez, J., Montero, M., Garcia-Sancho, J. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased calcium influx and ribosomal content correlate with resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death in mutant leukemia cell lines. Zhang, Y., Berger, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Intracellular mediators of granulysin-induced cell death. Okada, S., Li, Q., Whitin, J.C., Clayberger, C., Krensky, A.M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. C-mitosis and numerical chromosome aberration analyses in human lymphocytes: 10 known or suspected spindle poisons. Sbrana, I., Di Sibio, A., Lomi, A., Scarcelli, V. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. On the mechanism of action of econazole, the capacitative calcium inflow blocker. Gamberucci, A., Fulceri, R., Benedetti, A., Bygrave, F.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Naftifine cream 1% versus econazole cream 1% in the treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Millikan, L.E., Galen, W.K., Gewirtzman, G.B., Horwitz, S.N., Landow, R.K., Nesbitt, L.T., Roth, H.L., Sefton, J., Day, R.M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Three-day therapy of vaginal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets and econazole ovules: a multicenter comparative study. Stettendorf, S., Benijts, G., Vignali, M., Kreysing, W. Chemotherapy. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Treatment of candidal vaginitis. A prospective randomized investigator-blind multicenter study comparing topically applied econazole with oral fluconazole. Osser, S., Haglund, A., Weström, L. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Stimulation of HIV expression by intracellular calcium pump inhibition. Papp, B., Byrn, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Extracellular site for econazole-mediated block of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (Icrac) in T lymphocytes. Christian, E.P., Spence, K.T., Togo, J.A., Dargis, P.G., Warawa, E. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. TRPV6 potentiates calcium-dependent cell proliferation. Schwarz, E.C., Wissenbach, U., Niemeyer, B.A., Strauss, B., Philipp, S.E., Flockerzi, V., Hoth, M. Cell Calcium (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Econazole, a blocker of Ca2+ influx, selectively suppresses LTP of EPSPs in hippocampal slices. Forghani, R., Krnjević, K. Neurosci. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibitory effect of purines in meiotic maturation of denuded mouse oocytes. Shim, C., Lee, D.K., Lee, C.C., Cho, W.K., Kim, K. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Econazole inhibits thapsigargin-induced platelet calcium influx by mechanisms other than cytochrome P-450 inhibition. Vostal, J.G., Fratantoni, J.C. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytochrome P450: a novel system modulating Ca2+ channels and contraction in mammalian heart cells. Xiao, Y.F., Huang, L., Morgan, J.P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of staurosporine on the capacitative regulation of the state of the Ca2+ reserves in activated Jurkat T lymphocytes. Ahnadi, C.E., Payet, M.D., Dupuis, G. Cell Calcium (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Sensitivity of myeloid leukemia cells to calcium influx blockade: application to bone marrow purging. Soboloff, J., Zhang, Y., Minden, M., Berger, S.A. Exp. Hematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Positive and negative control of multidrug resistance by the Sit4 protein phosphatase in Kluyveromyces lactis. Chen, X.J., Bauer, B.E., Kuchler, K., Clark-Walker, G.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Transcriptional regulation of rat microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene by imidazole antimycotic agents. Kim, S.G. Mol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Cloning and characterization of CYP51 from Mycobacterium avium. Pietila, M.P., Vohra, P.K., Sanyal, B., Wengenack, N.L., Raghavakaimal, S., Thomas, C.F. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Use of decimal assay for additivity to demonstrate synergy in pair combinations of econazole, nikkomycin Z, and ibuprofen against Candida albicans in vitro. Tariq, V.N., Scott, E.M., McCain, N.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. In-vitro antifungal activity of sertaconazole, bifonazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole against yeasts of the Candida genus. Carrilo-Muñoz, A.J., Tur, C., Torres, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Thapsigargin-stimulated MAP kinase phosphorylation via CRAC channels and PLD activation: inhibitory action of docosahexaenoic acid. Denys, A., Aires, V., Hichami, A., Khan, N.A. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Pharmacological modulation of monovalent cation currents through the epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC1. Nilius, B., Prenen, J., Vennekens, R., Hoenderop, J.G., Bindels, R.J., Droogmans, G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces a sustained increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and catechol amine release by activating Ca(2+) influx via receptor-stimulated Ca(2+) entry, independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels, and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Morita, K., Sakakibara, A., Kitayama, S., Kumagai, K., Tanne, K., Dohi, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Calcium signalling through nucleotide receptor P2Y2 in cultured human vascular endothelium. Viana, F., de Smedt, H., Droogmans, G., Nilius, B. Cell Calcium (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Inhibition of TRPM2 channels by the antifungal agents clotrimazole and econazole. Hill, K., McNulty, S., Randall, A.D. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Calcium influx evoked by Ca2+ store depletion in human platelets is more susceptible to cytochrome P-450 inhibitors than receptor-mediated calcium entry. Sargeant, P., Clarkson, W.D., Sage, S.O., Heemskerk, J.W. Cell Calcium (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Enhanced econazole penetration into human nail by 2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane. Hui, X., Chan, T.C., Barbadillo, S., Lee, C., Maibach, H.I., Wester, R.C. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Efficacy of econazole ('Gyno-Pevaryl' 150) in vaginal candidosis during pregnancy. Goormans, E., Beek, J.M., Declercq, J.A., Loendersloot, E.W., Roelofs, H.J., van Zanten, A. Current medical research and opinion. (1985) [Pubmed]
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