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Chemical Compound Review

Augmentin     (2R,5R,6S)-6-[[(2R)-2-amino- 2-(4...

Synonyms: Amoxyclav, Curam, SureCN591660, CHEMBL2097107, AC1O5KQV, ...
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Disease relevance of Clavulin


Psychiatry related information on Clavulin

  • In particular, since good patient compliance is a key factor in the successful treatment of any infection, the once daily treatment with prulifloxacin may have some compliance advantages compared to the twice-daily treatment with agents such as ciprofloxacin or co-amoxiclav [6].

High impact information on Clavulin


Chemical compound and disease context of Clavulin


Biological context of Clavulin

  • Co-amoxiclav pharmacokinetics during posttraumatic hemorrhagic shock [14].
  • Data were obtained from plasma concentration-time curves from four different open, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover Phase I bioequivalence studies, with the following co-amoxiclav formulations: tablets 250/125, 500/125 and 875/125 mg, or 10 mL of an oral suspension 250/62.5 mg per 5 mL [15].
  • Bacteriological success in the bacteriology PP population at follow-up was 85.0% (17/20) for co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg versus 77.3% (17/22) for co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg (TD = 7.7%, 95% CI: 15.8, 31.2) [16].
  • OBJECTIVES: We studied the clonal relatedness, in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factors and co-amoxiclav resistance, of different Escherichia coli isolates obtained from blood and urine of a patient who had taken a 45 day course of co-amoxiclav [17].
  • One positive PCR result was not supported by positive treponemal serology (this patient coincidentally received a 10 day course of co-amoxiclav 1 week after sampling) [18].

Anatomical context of Clavulin


Associations of Clavulin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Clavulin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Clavulin

  • The in vitro susceptibilities suggest that clinical trials to treat enteritis caused by multidrug-resistant C. jejuni with co-amoxiclav, and life-threatening infections with a carbapenem, may be valuable [33].
  • METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of oral co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg twice daily versus co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg three times daily, for 7 or 10 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) [16].
  • The efficacy and safety of a three-day regimen of azithromycin (500 mg od) and a ten-day regimen of co-amoxiclav (625 mg tid) were compared in a single-blind study in 99 patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections [34].
  • METHODS: An open Phase I study measuring ex vivo bactericidal activity after anti-pneumococcal vaccination and an oral dose of 2000/125 mg sustained-release co-amoxiclav was carried out [35].
  • Five patients failed on co-amoxiclav, whereas their S. pneumoniae were susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin.This observation suggests that macrolide resistance is clinically relevant and leads to treatment failure, whereas suboptimal dosing may explain breakthrough pneumococcal bacteraemia in beta-lactam-treated patients [36].


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  2. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE I randomised trial. ORACLE Collaborative Group. Kenyon, S.L., Taylor, D.J., Tarnow-Mordi, W. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
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  5. In vitro activities of co-amoxiclav at concentrations achieved in human serum against the resistant subpopulation of heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus: a controlled study with vancomycin. Prieto, J., Aguilar, L., Giménez, M.J., Toro, D., Gómez-Lus, M.L., Dal-Ré, R., Balcabao, I.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  7. Improved phagocyte response by co-amoxiclav in renal transplant recipients. Cuffini, A.M., Tullio, V., Giacchino, F., Bonino, A., Mandras, N., Bianchi, N., Roana, J., Scalas, D., Bonello, F., Carlone, N.A. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
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  10. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of 3 day azithromycin versus 10 day co-amoxiclav in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Ferwerda, A., Moll, H.A., Hop, W.C., Kouwenberg, J.M., Tjon Pian Gi, C.V., Robben, S.G., de Groot, R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Multicentre in-vitro evaluation of the susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis to ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, co-amoxiclav and sparfloxacin. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A., Dirks-Go, S.I., Kabel, P., Manson, W.L., Stobberingh, E.E., Vreede, R.W., Davies, B.I. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibiotic resistance in salmonellae isolated from humans and animals in France: comparative data from 1994 and 1997. Breuil, J., Brisabois, A., Casin, I., Armand-Lefèvre, L., Frémy, S., Collatz, E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav on the aerobic and anaerobic nasopharyngeal flora. Brook, I., Gober, A.E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Co-amoxiclav pharmacokinetics during posttraumatic hemorrhagic shock. Mimoz, O., Schaeffer, V., Incagnoli, P., Louchahi, K., Edouard, A., Petitjean, O., Tod, M. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Identical pattern of highly variable absorption of clavulanic acid from four different oral formulations of co-amoxiclav in healthy subjects. Vree, T.B., Dammers, E., Exler, P.S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Oral pharmacokinetically enhanced co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg, twice daily, compared with co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg, three times daily, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in European adults. Garau, J., Twynholm, M., Garcia-Mendez, E., Siquier, B., Rivero, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Pyelonephritis caused by multiple clones of Escherichia coli, susceptible and resistant to co-amoxiclav, after a 45 day course of co-amoxiclav. Leflon-Guibout, V., Bonacorsi, S., Clermont, O., Ternat, G., Heym, B., Nicolas-Chanoine, M.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Use of PCR in the diagnosis of early syphilis in the United Kingdom. Palmer, H.M., Higgins, S.P., Herring, A.J., Kingston, M.A. Sexually transmitted infections. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. High-dosage co-amoxiclav in a single dose versus 7 days of co-trimoxazole as treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women. Masterton, R.G., Bochsler, J.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Antimicrobial treatment of an experimental otitis media caused by a beta-lactamase positive isolate of Haemophilus influenzae. Ponte, C., Cenjor, C., Parra, A., Nieto, E., García-Calvo, G., Giménez, M.J., Aguilar, L., Soriano, F. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combinations increase transmigration of leucocytes through endothelial cell monolayers: endothelial cells play a key role. Hofbauer, R., Moser, D., Gmeiner, B., Kaye, A.D., Kapiotis, S., Wagner, O., Frass, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of amoxycillin with or without clavulanate on adenoid bacterial flora. Brook, I., Shah, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Exposure to co-amoxiclav as a risk factor for co-amoxiclav-resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Leflon-Guibout, V., Ternat, G., Heym, B., Nicolas-Chanoine, M.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical and economic considerations in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Destache, C.J., Dewan, N., O'Donohue, W.J., Campbell, J.C., Angelillo, V.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. The in-vitro susceptibilities of vaginal lactobacilli to four broad-spectrum antibiotics, as determined by the agar dilution and E test methods. Herra, C.M., Cafferkey, M.T., Keane, C.T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates. Milazzo, I., Blandino, G., Caccamo, F., Musumeci, R., Nicoletti, G., Speciale, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Correlation of in-vitro activity and pharmacokinetic parameters with in-vivo effect of amoxycillin, co-amoxiclav and cefotaxime in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Soriano, F., Ponte, C., Nieto, E., Parra, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Antibiotic prophylaxis for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for non-malignant conditions: a double-blind prospective randomized controlled trial. Saadeddin, A., Freshwater, D.A., Fisher, N.C., Jones, B.J. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Behaviour of beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates in susceptibility tests with piperacillin/tazobactam and other beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Bonfiglio, G., Livermore, D.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Gentamicin- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: phenotypic and genotypic characterization of three putative nosocomial outbreak strains. Traub, W.H., Leonhard, B., Bauer, D. Chemotherapy. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Reduced susceptibility to co-amoxiclav in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in Romania between 1985 and 1993. Espinasse, F., Gheorghiu, R., Poiata, A., Labia, R., Nicolas-Chanoine, M.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae from England and Scotland in 1991. Powell, M., Yeo, S.F., Seymour, A., Yuan, M., Williams, J.D., Fah, Y.S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Multidrug resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains collected from Finnish patients during 1995-2000. Hakanen, A.J., Lehtopolku, M., Siitonen, A., Huovinen, P., Kotilainen, P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. A single-blind comparison of three-day azithromycin and ten-day co-amoxiclav treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections. Hoepelman, A.I., Sips, A.P., van Helmond, J.L., van Barneveld, P.W., Neve, A.J., Zwinkels, M., Rozenberg-Arska, M., Verhoef, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of opsonophagocytosis mediated by specific antibodies on the co-amoxiclav serum bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae after administration of a single oral dose of pharmacokinetically enhanced 2000/125 mg co-amoxiclav to healthy volunteers. Alou, L., Aguilar, L., Sevillano, D., Giménez, M.J., Laguna, B., Echeverría, O., Carcas, A., Lubomirov, R., Casal, J., Prieto, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Breakthrough pneumococcal bacteraemia in patients treated with clarithromycin or oral beta-lactams. Van Kerkhoven, D., Peetermans, W.E., Verbist, L., Verhaegen, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
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