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Gene Review

FAM215A  -  family with sequence similarity 215,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: APR-2, APR2, Apoptosis-related protein 2, C17orf88, LINC00530, ...
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Disease relevance of APR-2

  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the expressions of the bcl-2, bax, fas and c-myc apoptosis-related genes in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (CaP) to determine whether significant differences exist within each disease and between the two groups of patients [1].
  • Prognostic value of the apoptosis related genes BCL2 and BCL2L12 in breast cancer [2].
  • Structural insights into the mammalian proteins can be inferred by homology to Gag from viruses such as HIV; in turn, the cellular roles of the mammalian Gag homologs, such as apoptosis-related functions and binding to ubiquitin ligases, might hint at further functionality of viral Gag itself [3].
  • PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic and predictive relevance of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-X(L), and Mcl-1 in advanced ovarian cancer [4].
  • In vitro apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related molecules in lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases [5].

Psychiatry related information on APR-2

  • We previously reported the isolation of a novel apoptosis-related gene, human Nap1 (HGMW-approved symbol NCKAP1), the expression of which was strongly down-regulated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) [6].
  • The simultaneous expression of 19 apoptosis-related genes was analyzed by RNA-protection assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients before and during successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) [7].

High impact information on APR-2

  • These data suggest that ICSBP modulates survival of myeloid cells by regulating expression of apoptosis-related genes [8].
  • These results demonstrate a clear distinction between the mechanisms that drive MCD-associated and apoptosis-related chromatin condensation and provide mechanistic insights and new readouts for a major cell death process in treated tumors [9].
  • Apoptosis-related parameters (Bax, Bcl-2, CD95, and CD95-induced apoptosis) did not account for differential susceptibility to drug-induced apoptosis [10].
  • We evaluated levels of apoptosis and of apoptosis-related oncoproteins (c-Myc, which enhances, and Bcl-2, which diminishes apoptosis) expressed within CD34+ and CD34- marrow cell populations of MDS patients (n = 24) to determine their potential roles in the abnormal hematopoiesis of this disorder [11].
  • The apoptosis-related molecule, BAX, was highly correlated with the ALL class distinction [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of APR-2

  • Cell toxicity was evaluated by the MTT method, trypan blue staining and DNA laddering, whereas the expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes were analysed by RT-PCR using gene-specific primers [13].
  • Effect of gemcitabine on the expression of apoptosis-related genes in human pancreatic cancer cells [14].
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze molecular mechanisms induced in human glioblastoma A1235 cells by the treatment with lithium, especially its influence on the expression of apoptosis-related genes [15].
  • Colorimetric caspase assay, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting with antibodies against apoptosis-related molecules revealed that GCV has cytotoxic activity toward KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells, while ACV has weak or little activity [16].
  • AIM: To investigate role of apoptosis related genes Fas/FasL in azoospermia or oligozoospermia induced by testosterone undecanoate [17].

Biological context of APR-2


Anatomical context of APR-2


Associations of APR-2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of APR-2


Other interactions of APR-2

  • These are called AKH-Precursor Related Peptides or APRP 1 and APRP 2 [32].
  • Expression levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by Northern blot or immunoblot [33].
  • However, cotreatment did not induce expression of other apoptosis related genes, p21(WAF1) and GADD45 [34].
  • This mechanism involving apoptosis-related genes is readily executable, and is poised to respond to external signals through the differential regulation of BCL2 family members [35].
  • We recently reported that pyruvate inhibited translocation and activation of p53 caused by DNA damage due to oxidant injury (Lee YJ, Kang IJ, Bünger R, and Kang YH. Microvasc Res 66: 91-101, 2003); this was associated with increased expression of apoptosis-related bcl-2 and decreased expression of bax gene [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APR-2


  1. Apoptosis-related gene expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma. Iacopino, F., Angelucci, C., Lama, G., Zelano, G., La Torre, G., D'Addessi, A., Giovannini, C., Bertaccini, A., Macaluso, M.P., Martorana, G., Sica, G. Anticancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Prognostic value of the apoptosis related genes BCL2 and BCL2L12 in breast cancer. Thomadaki, H., Talieri, M., Scorilas, A. Cancer Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Computational characterization of multiple Gag-like human proteins. Campillos, M., Doerks, T., Shah, P.K., Bork, P. Trends Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins is an independent determinant of patient prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer. Baekelandt, M., Holm, R., Nesland, J.M., Tropé, C.G., Kristensen, G.B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. In vitro apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related molecules in lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Lorenz, H.M., Grünke, M., Hieronymus, T., Herrmann, M., Kühnel, A., Manger, B., Kalden, J.R. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation of hNap1BP which interacts with human Nap1 (NCKAP1) whose expression is down-regulated in Alzheimer's disease. Yamamoto, A., Suzuki, T., Sakaki, Y. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Apoptosis-associated gene expression in HIV-infected patients in response to successful antiretroviral therapy. Balestrieri, E., Grelli, S., Matteucci, C., Minutolo, A., d'Ettorre, G., Di Sora, F., Montella, F., Vullo, V., Vella, S., Favalli, C., Macchi, B., Mastino, A. J. Med. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of apoptosis in myeloid cells by interferon consensus sequence-binding protein. Gabriele, L., Phung, J., Fukumoto, J., Segal, D., Wang, I.M., Giannakakou, P., Giese, N.A., Ozato, K., Morse, H.C. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Condensin I recruitment and uneven chromatin condensation precede mitotic cell death in response to DNA damage. Blank, M., Lerenthal, Y., Mittelman, L., Shiloh, Y. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro susceptibility to dexamethasone- and doxorubicin-induced apoptotic cell death in context of maturation stage, responsiveness to interleukin 7, and early cytoreduction in vivo in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Wuchter, C., Ruppert, V., Schrappe, M., Dörken, B., Ludwig, W.D., Karawajew, L. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Altered oncoprotein expression and apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndrome marrow cells. Rajapaksa, R., Ginzton, N., Rott, L.S., Greenberg, P.L. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Gene expression profiling identifies BAX-delta as a novel tumor antigen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Maia, S., Haining, W.N., Ansén, S., Xia, Z., Armstrong, S.A., Seth, N.P., Ghia, P., den Boer, M.L., Pieters, R., Sallan, S.E., Nadler, L.M., Cardoso, A.A. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with taxol and etoposide induces distinct alterations in the expression of apoptosis-related genes BCL2, BCL2L12, BAX, CASPASE-9 and FAS. Thomadaki, H., Talieri, M., Scorilas, A. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of gemcitabine on the expression of apoptosis-related genes in human pancreatic cancer cells. Jiang, P.H., Motoo, Y., Sawabu, N., Minamoto, T. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Lithium increases expression of p21(WAF/Cip1) and survivin in human glioblastoma cells. Karlovic, D., Jakopec, S., Dubravcic, K., Batinic, D., Buljan, D., Osmak, M. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Apoptotic effect of ganciclovir on primary effusion lymphoma cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Fujimuro, M., Inoue, H., Teishikata, Y., Ishida, Y., Yokosawa, H. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of Fas/FasL genes in azoospermia or oligozoospermia induced by testosterone undecanoate in rhesus monkey. Zhou, X.C., Wei, P., Hu, Z.Y., Gao, F., Zhou, R.J., Liu, Y.X. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of specific genes and pathways involved in NSAIDs-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. Huang, R.H., Chai, J., Tarnawski, A.S. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Gut mucosal homeostasis and cellular mediators after severe thermal trauma and the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I in combination with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Jeschke, M.G., Bolder, U., Chung, D.H., Przkora, R., Mueller, U., Thompson, J.C., Wolf, S.E., Herndon, D.N. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Study on the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced drug resistance in the U937 cells and its mechanism. Lin, Y.M., Zhang, G.Z., Leng, Z.X., Lu, Z.X., Bu, L.S., Gao, S., Yang, S.J. Chin. Med. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential expression of apoptosis-related Fas antigen on lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. Miyawaki, T., Uehara, T., Nibu, R., Tsuji, T., Yachie, A., Yonehara, S., Taniguchi, N. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. NF-kappaB protects Behçet's disease T cells against CD95-induced apoptosis up-regulating antiapoptotic proteins. Todaro, M., Zerilli, M., Triolo, G., Iovino, F., Patti, M., Accardo-Palumbo, A., di Gaudio, F., Turco, M.C., Petrella, A., de Maria, R., Stassi, G. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Transcription factor GATA-6, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in human fetal testis. Ketola, I., Toppari, J., Vaskivuo, T., Herva, R., Tapanainen, J.S., Heikinheimo, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 blocks programmed cell death and release of cytochrome c but not the translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor to the nuclei of human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Zhou, G., Roizman, B. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Puerarin decreases lens epithelium cell apoptosis induced partly by peroxynitrite in diabetic rats. Hao, L.N., Ling, Y.Q., Luo, X.M., Mao, Y.X., Mao, Q.Y., He, S.Z., Ling, Y.L. Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Contribution to antimitochondrial antibody production: cleavage of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 by apoptosis-related proteases. Matsumura, S., Van De Water, J., Kita, H., Coppel, R.L., Tsuji, T., Yamamoto, K., Ansari, A.A., Gershwin, M.E. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Ceramide selectively inhibits apoptosis-associated events in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. Nair, P., Tammariello, S.P., Estus, S. Cell Death Differ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Role of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in adenosine-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Hermes, M., Osswald, H., Kloor, D. Exp. Cell Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. MAPK activation and apoptotic alterations in hearts subjected to calcium paradox are attenuated by taurine. Xu, Y.J., Saini, H.K., Zhang, M., Elimban, V., Dhalla, N.S. Cardiovasc. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. TIP30 regulates apoptosis-related genes in its apoptotic signal transduction pathway. Shi, M., Zhang, X., Wang, P., Zhang, H.W., Zhang, B.H., Wu, M.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification of two Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1) promoters in human cancer cells. Irie, S., Li, Y., Kanki, H., Ohyama, T., Deaven, L.L., Somlo, S., Sato, T.A. DNA Seq. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Biosynthesis of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs): further characterization of precursors and identification of novel products of processing. Hekimi, S., O'Shea, M. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. PTHrP rescues ATDC5 cells from apoptosis induced by FGF receptor 3 mutation. Yamanaka, Y., Tanaka, H., Koike, M., Nishimura, R., Seino, Y. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Green tea polyphenol stimulates cancer preventive effects of celecoxib in human lung cancer cells by upregulation of GADD153 gene. Suganuma, M., Kurusu, M., Suzuki, K., Tasaki, E., Fujiki, H. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. MCL1 provides a window on the role of the BCL2 family in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Craig, R.W. Leukemia (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Enhanced survival effect of pyruvate correlates MAPK and NF-kappaB activation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human endothelial cells. Lee, Y.J., Kang, I.J., Bünger, R., Kang, Y.H. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. The relation between soluble apoptotic proteins and subclinical cardiotoxicity in adjuvant-treated breast cancer patients. Perik, P.J., De Vries, E.G., Boomsma, F., Messerschmidt, J., Van Veldhuisen, D.J., Sleijfer, D.T., Gietema, J.A., Van der Graaf, W.T. Anticancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Expression of Bcl-2 and p53 correlates with the morphology of gastric neoplasia. Kyokane, K., Ito, M., Sato, Y., Ina, K., Ando, T., Kusugami, K. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. A green tea polyphenol, epigalocatechin-3-gallate, induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly through inhibition of Bcl-2 family proteins. Nishikawa, T., Nakajima, T., Moriguchi, M., Jo, M., Sekoguchi, S., Ishii, M., Takashima, H., Katagishi, T., Kimura, H., Minami, M., Itoh, Y., Kagawa, K., Okanoue, T. J. Hepatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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