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Gene Review

Apoe  -  apolipoprotein E

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Apo-E, Apolipoprotein E
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Disease relevance of Apoe


Psychiatry related information on Apoe


High impact information on Apoe


Chemical compound and disease context of Apoe


Biological context of Apoe

  • Only the conditioned medium collected from cultures transfected with ApoE4 induced a significant inhibition of Wnt7a-stimulated gene expression, confirming that ApoE4 has an extracellular action that is not shared by the other ApoE isoforms [15].
  • Changes were remarkably similar in both models, indicating a decreased cell proliferation in DG, an increased number of astrocytes immunopositive for GFAP and ApoE and a reduced number of hilar neurones [16].
  • To begin to address how megalin is able to bind ligands with unique structurally properties, we have mapped a binding site for apolipoprotein E (apoE)-beta very low density lipoprotein (beta VLDL), lipoprotein lipase, aprotinin, lactoferrin, and the receptor-associated protein (RAP) within the primary sequence of the receptor [17].
  • The rat apolipoprotein E gene was isolated from a genomic library by screening with a cDNA probe [18].
  • A 900-base pair clone corresponding to rat liver apolipoprotein E (apo-E) mRNA, and containing a 3'-terminal poly(A) segment, was identified from a library of rat liver cDNA clones in the plasmid pBR322 by specific hybrid selection and translation of mRNA [19].

Anatomical context of Apoe


Associations of Apoe with chemical compounds

  • Apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase increase triglyceride-rich particle binding but decrease particle penetration in arterial wall [20].
  • Emulsions incubated with plasma from hypothyroid rats had a decreased ratio of apolipoprotein E/apolipoprotein C compared with control rats or hypothyroid rats treated with T3 [1].
  • The acquisition of apolipoprotein E by nascent secretory vesicle VLDL was attended by a loss of phospholipids, particularly the C40 (stearoylarachidonyl) molecular species, and an increase in the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio from 0.11 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.03 [21].
  • In the present study, we show that this approximately 38,000-Mr heparin-regulated protein is electrophoretically and immunologically identical to apolipoprotein E (apo-E), a major plasma apolipoprotein involved in cholesterol transport [22].
  • Other constitutively secreted proteins (rat serum albumin, apolipoprotein E, and fibrinogen) could not be detected in purified HSPG-carrying vesicles, but banded in the denser fractions of the Nycodenz gradient [23].

Physical interactions of Apoe


Enzymatic interactions of Apoe


Regulatory relationships of Apoe


Other interactions of Apoe


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Apoe


  1. Effects of hypothyroidism on the metabolism of lipid emulsion models of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in rats. Redgrave, T.G., Elsegood, C.L., Mamo, J.C., Callow, M.J. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Spatiotemporal changes of apolipoprotein E immunoreactivity and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brain. Kamada, H., Sato, K., Zhang, W.R., Omori, N., Nagano, I., Shoji, M., Abe, K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal apolipoprotein E is not synthesized in neuron after focal ischemia in rat brain. Nishio, M., Kohmura, E., Yuguchi, T., Nakajima, Y., Fujinaka, T., Akiyama, C., Iwata, A., Yoshimine, T. Neurol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathogenic antibodies inhibit the binding of apolipoproteins to megalin/gp330 in passive Heymann nephritis. Kerjaschki, D., Exner, M., Ullrich, R., Susani, M., Curtiss, L.K., Witztum, J.L., Farquhar, M.G., Orlando, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Macrophages from nephrotic rats regulate apolipoprotein E biosynthesis and cholesterol content independently. Bass, J., Fisher, E.A., Prack, M.M., Williams, D.L., Marsh, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Implication of apoE isoforms in cholesterol metabolism by primary rat hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Rapp, A., Gmeiner, B., Hüttinger, M. Biochimie (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Apolipoprotein E allele-specific antioxidant activity and effects on cytotoxicity by oxidative insults and beta-amyloid peptides. Miyata, M., Smith, J.D. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. CNS synaptogenesis promoted by glia-derived cholesterol. Mauch, D.H., Nägler, K., Schumacher, S., Göritz, C., Müller, E.C., Otto, A., Pfrieger, F.W. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Lipoprotein uptake by neuronal growth cones in vitro. Ignatius, M.J., Shooter, E.M., Pitas, R.E., Mahley, R.W. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Variable heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding of apolipoprotein E variants may modulate the expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Ji, Z.S., Fazio, S., Mahley, R.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Apolipoprotein E protects against NMDA excitotoxicity. Aono, M., Lee, Y., Grant, E.R., Zivin, R.A., Pearlstein, R.D., Warner, D.S., Bennett, E.R., Laskowitz, D.T. Neurobiol. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Rapid elevation of neuronal cytoplasmic calcium by apolipoprotein E peptide. Wang, X.S., Gruenstein, E. J. Cell. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in amyloid precursor protein and apolipoprotein E immunoreactivity following ischemic brain injury in rat with long-term survival: influence of idebenone treatment. Pluta, R., Barcikowska, M., Debicki, G., Ryba, M., Januszewski, S. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of cyclosporine-A on brain lipids and apolipoprotein E, J gene expression in rats. Montpied, P., Batxelli, I., André, M., Portugal, H., Lairon, D., Bockaërt, J., Chanussot, F. Neuroreport (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by apolipoprotein E4 in PC12 cells. Caruso, A., Motolese, M., Iacovelli, L., Caraci, F., Copani, A., Nicoletti, F., Terstappen, G.C., Gaviraghi, G., Caricasole, A. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Abnormalities of the hippocampus are similar in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pietranera, L., Saravia, F., Gonzalez Deniselle, M.C., Roig, P., Lima, A., De Nicola, A.F. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of the second cluster of ligand-binding repeats in megalin as a site for receptor-ligand interactions. Orlando, R.A., Exner, M., Czekay, R.P., Yamazaki, H., Saito, A., Ullrich, R., Kerjaschki, D., Farquhar, M.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure and expression of the rat apolipoprotein E gene. Fung, W.P., Howlett, G.J., Schreiber, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Rat apolipoprotein E mRNA. Cloning and sequencing of double-stranded cDNA. McLean, J.W., Fukazawa, C., Taylor, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase increase triglyceride-rich particle binding but decrease particle penetration in arterial wall. Mullick, A.E., Deckelbaum, R.J., Goldberg, I.J., Al-Haideri, M., Rutledge, J.C. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Post-secretory acquisition of apolipoprotein E by nascent rat hepatic very-low-density lipoproteins in the absence of cholesteryl ester transfer. Dolphin, P.J., Forsyth, S.J., Krul, E.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of apolipoprotein E by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by growth state. Majack, R.A., Castle, C.K., Goodman, L.V., Weisgraber, K.H., Mahley, R.W., Shooter, E.M., Gebicke-Haerter, P.J. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. ADP ribosylation factor and a 14-kD polypeptide are associated with heparan sulfate-carrying post-trans-Golgi network secretory vesicles in rat hepatocytes. Nickel, W., Huber, L.A., Kahn, R.A., Kipper, N., Barthel, A., Fasshauer, D., Söling, H.D. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein reuptake during synaptic remodelling in hippocampus in adult rats. Poirier, J., Baccichet, A., Dea, D., Gauthier, S. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of hepatic lipase catalyzed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by apolipoprotein E. Thuren, T., Sisson, P., Waite, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Electrophoretic studies on the phosphorylation of stathmin and mitogen-activated protein kinases in neuronal cell death induced by oxidized very-low-density lipoprotein with apolipoprotein E. Yamashita, H., Nakamura, K., Arai, H., Furumoto, H., Fujimoto, M., Kashiwagi, S., Morimatsu, M. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Altered hepatic production of apolipoproteins B and E in the fasted septic rat: factors in the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Tripp, R.J., Tabares, A., Wang, H., Lanza-Jacoby, S. J. Surg. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Uptake and degradation of rat chylomicron remnants, produced in vivo and in vitro, in rat hepatocyte monolayers. Nilsson, A., Ehnholm, C., Florén, C.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Electroimmunoassay of rat apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, and E. A procedure for sample treatment to increase the sensitivity in diluted fractions. Dallinga-Thie, G.M., Groot, P.H., van Tol, A. J. Lipid Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Biomarker discovery in rat plasma for estrogen receptor-alpha action. Holt, T.G., Flick, R.B., Rohde, E., Griffin, P., Rohrer, S.P. Electrophoresis (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimer's disease. Poirier, J. Trends Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Concentration of intracellular hepatic apolipoprotein E in Golgi apparatus saccular distensions and endosomes. Dahan, S., Ahluwalia, J.P., Wong, L., Posner, B.I., Bergeron, J.J. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential expression of apolipoprotein E messenger RNA within the rat liver lobule determined by in situ hybridization. Massimi, M., Lear, S.R., Williams, D.L., Jones, A.L., Erickson, S.K. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabolism of apolipoprotein E in plasma high density lipoproteins from normal and cholesterol-fed rats. van't Hooft, F., Havel, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
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