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Gene Review

PARP9  -  poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 9, ARTD9, B aggressive lymphoma protein, BAL, BAL1, ...
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Disease relevance of PARP9

  • BAL is a novel risk-related gene in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas that enhances cellular migration [1].
  • The extracellular nuclease from Alteromonas espejiana sp. BAL 31 can be isolated as two distinct proteins, the "fast" (F) and "slow" (S) species, both of which have been purified to homogeneity [2].
  • This clone, however, failed to kill target cells pulsed with the peptides that have a mutation from Lys to Arg or Gln at amino acid 585 which is present in some prototype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains, e.g., ADA, JFL, SC, ALA1, BAL1, SF2, VRF, SF33, and WMJ2 [3].
  • We present a patient with BAL-confirmed eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) and respiratory failure after a trazodone overdose [4].
  • Under treatment with modified British Anti-Lewisite (BAL; "Dimaval") his polyneuropathy slowly, but incompletely, subsided over three years at which time another sural nerve biopsy specimen showed regenerative proliferation of myelinated and unmyelinated axons but no signs of Wallerian degeneration [5].

High impact information on PARP9


Chemical compound and disease context of PARP9

  • Remarkably, anti-IL-17 mAb significantly enhanced IL-5 levels in both BAL fluid and serum, and aggravated allergen-induced bronchial eosinophilia [8].
  • Form II PM2 DNA, which contained bleomycin-mediated single-strand breaks, was purified and treated with the extracellular endonuclease from Alteromonas BAL 31 [9].
  • BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis [10].
  • The final diagnosis of BOOP was validated when patients presented: (i) negative microbiological analysis on BAL fluid; (ii) a well documented improvement either spontaneous, or after steroid treatment or (iii) cases with progressive respiratory failure and increasing radiographic shadows, an open lung biopsy or autopsy that excluded other entities [11].
  • The relative order of effectiveness for inhibition of TBT mediated hemolysis was BAL greater than DTT greater than DMSA greater than DMPS greater than beta MER [12].

Biological context of PARP9

  • In addition, both BAL and KIAA1268 map to chromosome 3q21, further suggesting that these genes belong to a newly identified family [1].
  • BAL1 encodes a nuclear protein with N-terminal macro domains and a putative C-terminal poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) active site [13].
  • With the availability of a sufficient amount of recombinant T-BAL, the specificity and kinetics of T-BAL and native BAL were compared [14].
  • A cell surface antigen (BAL) defined by a mouse monoclonal antibody inducing apoptosis in a human lymphocytic leukemia cell line [15].
  • Heat inactivation patterns of native BAL and T-BAL were found to be similar, further suggesting that the folding of T-BAL is similar to that of the catalytic domain of the native enzyme [14].

Anatomical context of PARP9

  • This observation and the characteristic dissemination of high risk DLB-CLs prompted studies regarding the role of BAL in B-cell migration [1].
  • As compared with FA, the single exposure to ozone caused a decrease in FEV(1), an increase in the percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes, the concentrations of total protein, IL-6, IL-8, reduced glutathione, urate, and ortho-tyrosine in BAL fluid (BALF), but no changes in the cellular composition of biopsy [16].
  • Clinically effective treatment depressed BAL neutrophil counts and reversed elevated levels of MPO and PEROX but had an inconsistent effect on the BAL lymphocyte count and the sIL-2R level [17].
  • As with the blood eosinophilia, an increase in number of eosinophils can be present in BAL fluids without asthma [18].
  • Stress significantly increased allergen induced airway inflammation as identified by leukocyte numbers in BAL fluids [19].

Associations of PARP9 with chemical compounds

  • A test of the propensity of the simplest benzylic epoxide, styrene oxide, to form esters that hydrolyze via a BAL1 mechanism was performed [20].
  • Parallel synthesis and biological screening of dopamine receptor ligands taking advantage of a click chemistry based BAL linker [21].
  • All chelation treatments consisted of CaNa2 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) 25 mg/kg per dose every 12 hours and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL) 3 mg/kg per dose every four hours for five days [22].
  • Conclusions: In comparison to LTG, enzyme inducing AEDs (CBZ, PHT) are associated with a more favorable neuroactive steroid balance (lower DHEAS and higher BAL/BAE) for seizure management, but at the expense of reduced serum bioavailable testosterone levels and sexual function [23].
  • BAT correlated significantly with BAL/BAE for PHT (r = 0.44, p = 0.02) and CBZ (r = 0.42, p = 0.03) but not for NC (r = 0.03, p = NS) and LTG (r = 0.06, p = NS) groups [23].

Other interactions of PARP9

  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen for BAL-binding partners, we have now identified a novel protein termed BBAP (B-lymphoma- and BAL-associated protein) [24].
  • Of note, the BAL N-terminus and secondary structure resemble those of a recently identified human protein, KIAA1268 [1].
  • The present study shows that BAL-1 specifically recognizes the MHC class I (MHC-I) [25].
  • B-aggressive lymphoma family proteins have unique domains that modulate transcription and exhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PARP9

  • IGF-1 mRNA expression was quantitated by RT-PCR in cells from four to six BAL per patient performed during the first 6 mo postgraft [26].
  • B1x was not significantly correlated with any of the commercial BALP immunoassays [27].
  • Bronchoscopy with BAL and transbronchial lung biopsy was the usual method of diagnosis (n = 17, 74%), and our mortality rate was 70% [28].
  • By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found a twofold increase over normal values in BAL SP-A without changes in total phospholipids [29].
  • Thirty-five of 48 patients (73%) had positive PCR results on BAL analysis [30].


  1. BAL is a novel risk-related gene in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas that enhances cellular migration. Aguiar, R.C., Yakushijin, Y., Kharbanda, S., Salgia, R., Fletcher, J.A., Shipp, M.A. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and comparison of two molecular species of the BAL 31 nuclease from Alteromonas espejiana with distinct kinetic properties. Wei, C.F., Alianell, G.A., Bencen, G.H., Gray, H.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at amino acid 585 on gp41 results in loss of killing by CD8+ A24-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Dai, L.C., West, K., Littaua, R., Takahashi, K., Ennis, F.A. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Eosinophilic pneumonia and respiratory failure associated with a trazodone overdose. Salerno, S.M., Strong, J.S., Roth, B.J., Sakata, V. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Polyneuropathy due to acute arsenic intoxication: biopsy studies. Goebel, H.H., Schmidt, P.F., Bohl, J., Tettenborn, B., Krämer, G., Gutmann, L. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Internal control regions for transcription of eukaryotic tRNA genes. Sharp, S., DeFranco, D., Dingermann, T., Farrell, P., Söll, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. BAL1 and BBAP are regulated by a gamma interferon-responsive bidirectional promoter and are overexpressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. Juszczynski, P., Kutok, J.L., Li, C., Mitra, J., Aguiar, R.C., Shipp, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin-17 orchestrates the granulocyte influx into airways after allergen inhalation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Hellings, P.W., Kasran, A., Liu, Z., Vandekerckhove, P., Wuyts, A., Overbergh, L., Mathieu, C., Ceuppens, J.L. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Site specificity of bleomycin-mediated single-strand scissions and alkali-labile damage in duplex DNA. Lloyd, R.S., Haidle, C.W., Robberson, D.L. Gene (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity. Check, I.J., Kidd, M.R., Staton, G.W. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia: an Italian experience. Cazzato, S., Zompatori, M., Baruzzi, G., Schiattone, M.L., Burzi, M., Rossi, A., Ratta, L., Terzuolo, G., Falcone, F., Poletti, V. Respiratory medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of tributyltin mediated hemolysis by mercapto compounds. Gray, B.H., Porvaznik, M., Lee, L.H., Flemming, C. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. B-aggressive lymphoma family proteins have unique domains that modulate transcription and exhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Aguiar, R.C., Takeyama, K., He, C., Kreinbrink, K., Shipp, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Proline-rich domain and glycosylation are not essential for the enzymic activity of bile salt-activated lipase. Kinetic studies of T-BAL, a truncated form of the enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli. Downs, D., Xu, Y.Y., Tang, J., Wang, C.S. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. A cell surface antigen (BAL) defined by a mouse monoclonal antibody inducing apoptosis in a human lymphocytic leukemia cell line. Wallén-Ohman, M., Borrebaeck, C.A. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of repeated ozone exposures on inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and mucosal biopsies. Jörres, R.A., Holz, O., Zachgo, W., Timm, P., Koschyk, S., Müller, B., Grimminger, F., Seeger, W., Kelly, F.J., Dunster, C., Frischer, T., Lubec, G., Waschewski, M., Niendorf, A., Magnussen, H. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the lower respiratory tract in Wegener's granulomatosis. Schnabel, A., Csernok, E., Braun, J., Gross, W.L. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Asthma, inflammation, eosinophils and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Smith, H. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of stress on eotaxin and expression of adhesion molecules in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Joachim, R.A., Sagach, V., Quarcoo, D., Dinh, Q.T., Arck, P.C., Klapp, B.F. J. Neuroimmunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular dosimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon epoxides and diol epoxides via hemoglobin adducts. Day, B.W., Naylor, S., Gan, L.S., Sahali, Y., Nguyen, T.T., Skipper, P.L., Wishnok, J.S., Tannenbaum, S.R. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Parallel synthesis and biological screening of dopamine receptor ligands taking advantage of a click chemistry based BAL linker. Bettinetti, L., Löber, S., Hübner, H., Gmeiner, P. Journal of combinatorial chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Reversible nephrotoxic reactions to a combined 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol and calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid regimen in asymptomatic children with elevated blood lead levels. Moel, D.I., Kumar, K. Pediatrics (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on neuroactive steroids in men with epilepsy. Herzog, A.G., Drislane, F.W., Schomer, D.L., Pennell, P.B., Bromfield, E.B., Dworetzky, B.A., Farina, E.L., Frye, C.A. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. The BAL-binding protein BBAP and related Deltex family members exhibit ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase activity. Takeyama, K., Aguiar, R.C., Gu, L., He, C., Freeman, G.J., Kutok, J.L., Aster, J.C., Shipp, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Ligation of MHC class I induces apoptosis in human pre-B cell lines, in promyelocytic cell lines and in CD40-stimulated mature B cells. Wallén-Ohman, M., Larrick, J.W., Carlsson, R., Borrebaeck, C.A. Int. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Insulinlike growth factor-1 in lung transplants with obliterative bronchiolitis. Charpin, J.M., Stern, M., Grenet, D., Israël-Biet, D. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of chronic renal failure on bone turnover and bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms. Magnusson, P., Sharp, C.A., Magnusson, M., Risteli, J., Davie, M.W., Larsson, L. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Pulmonary nodules in lung transplant recipients: etiology and outcome. Lee, P., Minai, O.A., Mehta, A.C., DeCamp, M.M., Murthy, S. Chest (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Increased surfactant protein-A levels in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Phelps, D.S., Umstead, T.M., Mejia, M., Carrillo, G., Pardo, A., Selman, M. Chest (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Low sensitivity of a nested polymerase chain reaction in oropharyngeal washings for the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Nyamande, K., Lalloo, U.G., York, D., Naidoo, M., Irusen, E.M., Chetty, R. Chest (2005) [Pubmed]
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