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Gene Review

HOMER2  -  homer homolog 2 (Drosophila)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACPD, CPD, Cupidin, HOMER-2, HOMER-2A, ...
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Disease relevance of HOMER2

  • Entry of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is initiated by specific interaction of its large envelope protein (L) with a cellular entry receptor, recently identified as carboxypeptidase D (CPD; historically gp180) [1].
  • Echocardiographic abnormalities of cardiac function and structure were studied in children and young adults (< 27 years old) with chronic renal failure (CRF, N = 32), end-stage renal failure treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD, N = 10) or renal transplantation (N = 30) or controls (N = 60) [2].
  • A recombinant VE-cadherin cytoplasmic domain (rVE-cad CPD) was expressed in E. coli and purified through Ni-NTA spin columns [3].
  • An open-label, dose-response study of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD), an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, was conducted with 58 males with uncomplicated Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections with single doses of 600, 400, 200, 100, or 50 mg of CPD administered orally by tablet [4].
  • The increase in oxygen affinity during hypothermia was influenced also by changes in acid base and 2,3-DPG concentrations, the changes being similar in both the ACD and CPD groups of patients [5].

Psychiatry related information on HOMER2


High impact information on HOMER2


Biological context of HOMER2

  • None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms analyzed in the Homer2 gene associates with cocaine dependence [12].
  • The rank-order potency of ACPD enantiomers at L-AP4 receptors in ON bipolar cells is similar to their rank-order potency at non-AP4, mGluRs in brain which suggests that the receptors possess similar binding sites and may be members of a common receptor family [13].
  • Nevertheless, an absence of detectable p21 protein in deficient cells had no demonstrable effect on DNA repair response to UV irradiation, as measured by an immunoassay to detect removal of UV photoproducts from genomic DNA (GGR) and by individual strand specific removal of endonuclease-sensitive CPD from a target gene fragment (TCR) [14].
  • Importantly, transfection of rVE-cad CPD into intact isolated coronary venules markedly elevated the albumin permeability of the venular endothelium [3].
  • Agonists inducing [3H]PtdIns hydrolysis include carbachol, trans-1-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (ACPD; a glutamatergic metabotropic receptor agonist), serotonin and ATP, with the latter two agonists producing the largest responses [15].

Anatomical context of HOMER2


Associations of HOMER2 with chemical compounds

  • 2-F-araATP was a potent inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase; the concentration required for 50% inhibition of ADP reduction (0.3 mM ADP; 5 mM GTP or dGTP) was 1 microM and for CDP reduction (0.15 mM CPD; 5 mM ATP) was 8.5 microM [19].
  • The selective agonist for the type I metabotropic glutamate receptor ((RS)-3,5-dihydrophenylglycine (DHPG, 50 microM)) reproduced all the effects of ACPD [20].
  • ACPTs are ACPD analogues in which a third carboxylic group has been added at position 4 in the cyclopentane ring [21].
  • CPD patients exhibited high plasma MDA concentrations [371 (287 to 468) nM], whereas hexanal was in the low normal range [56 (51 to 81) nM] [16].
  • Platelets were collected either into CPD anticoagulant or directly into glutaraldehyde [22].

Other interactions of HOMER2

  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that a polymorphism in the Homer1 gene, rs6871510, is a potential risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence in an African American population, whereas polymorphisms in the Homer2 gene are not [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HOMER2

  • Importantly, the mGluR agonist effects of (+)-9 are evident following oral administration in mice in both the elevated plus maze model of anxiety (ED50 = 0.5 mg/kg) and in the ACPD-induced limbic seizure model (ED50 = 45.6 mg/kg) [23].
  • Blood collected with CPD and stored was examined with optical (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after reversal of echinocytes into discocytes [24].
  • During rewarming, however, oxygen availability was increased in the CPD group presumably from significantly increased 2,3-DPG concentrations [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: RBCs stored in CPD-saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol do show a progressive loss of oxygen-dependent metabolic modulation, which is not restored after rejuvenation and which seems partly related to modifications in membrane proteins, mainly band 3 [25].
  • Immunocytochemistry of sections from ACPD injected animals using selective antibodies to Abeta revealed the presence of punctate intraneuronal granules in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus [26].


  1. Envelope protein-mediated down-regulation of hepatitis B virus receptor in infected hepatocytes. Breiner, K.M., Urban, S., Glass, B., Schaller, H. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Left ventricular abnormalities in children, adolescents and young adults with renal disease. Johnstone, L.M., Jones, C.L., Grigg, L.E., Wilkinson, J.L., Walker, R.G., Powell, H.R. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Transference of recombinant VE-cadherin cytoplasmic domain alters endothelial junctional integrity and porcine microvascular permeability. Guo, M., Wu, M.H., Granger, H.J., Yuan, S.Y. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Orally administered cefpodoxime proxetil for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males: a dose-response study. Novak, E., Paxton, L.M., Tubbs, H.J., Turner, L.F., Keck, C.W., Yatsu, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Oxygen availability during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Fisher, A., Foëx, P., Emerson, P.M., Darley, J.H., Rauscher, L.A. Crit. Care Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. CPD - education and self-assessment: functional imaging in epilepsy. Richardson, M.P. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Multisite phosphorylation of a CDK inhibitor sets a threshold for the onset of DNA replication. Nash, P., Tang, X., Orlicky, S., Chen, Q., Gertler, F.B., Mendenhall, M.D., Sicheri, F., Pawson, T., Tyers, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Properties of vertebrate glutamate receptors: calcium mobilization and desensitization. Zorumski, C.F., Thio, L.L. Prog. Neurobiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased calcium permeability of cold-stored erythrocytes. Wiley, J.S., McCulloch, K.E., Bowden, D.S. Blood (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. A glutamate-activated chloride current in cone-driven ON bipolar cells of the white perch retina. Grant, G.B., Dowling, J.E. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Influence of chemotherapy administration on monocyte activation by liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine in children with osteosarcoma. Kleinerman, E.S., Snyder, J.S., Jaffe, N. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of a polymorphism in the Homer1 gene with cocaine dependence in an African American population. Dahl, J.P., Kampman, K.M., Oslin, D.W., Weller, A.E., Lohoff, F.W., Ferraro, T.N., O'Brien, C.P., Berrettini, W.H. Psychiatr. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Actions of (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD) in retinal ON bipolar cells indicate that it is an agonist at L-AP4 receptors. Thoreson, W.B., Miller, R.F. J. Gen. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Human cells deficient in p53 regulated p21(waf1/cip1) expression exhibit normal nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Wani, M.A., Wani, G., Yao, J., Zhu, Q., Wani, A.A. Carcinogenesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. [3H]PtdIns hydrolysis in postmortem human brain membranes is mediated by the G-proteins Gq/11 and phospholipase C-beta. Jope, R.S., Song, L., Powers, R. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of dialysis on plasma lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant levels. Daschner, M., Lenhartz, H., Bötticher, D., Schaefer, F., Wollschläger, M., Mehls, O., Leichsenring, M. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Temperature effects on shape and function of human granulocytes. Lionetti, F.J., Lin, P.S., Mattaliano, R.J., Hunt, S.M., Valeri, C.R. Exp. Hematol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Excitatory effects of ACPD receptor activation in the hippocampus are mediated by direct effects on pyramidal cells and blockade of synaptic inhibition. Desai, M.A., Conn, P.J. J. Neurophysiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. In vitro biological activity of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine and the biochemical actions of its triphosphate on DNA polymerases and ribonucleotide reductase from HeLa cells. Tseng, W.C., Derse, D., Cheng, Y.C., Brockman, R.W., Bennett, L.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulation of plateau properties in dorsal horn neurones in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. Russo, R.E., Nagy, F., Hounsgaard, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of aminocyclopentanetricarboxylic acids: new tools to discriminate between metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes. Acher, F.C., Tellier, F.J., Azerad, R., Brabet, I.N., Fagni, L., Pin, J.P. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Morphometric analysis of platelets in Bernard-Soulier syndrome: size and configuration in patients and carriers. McGill, M., Jamieson, G.A., Drouin, J., Cho, M.S., Rock, G.A. Thromb. Haemost. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740): a potent, selective, and orally active group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist possessing anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties. Monn, J.A., Valli, M.J., Massey, S.M., Wright, R.A., Salhoff, C.R., Johnson, B.G., Howe, T., Alt, C.A., Rhodes, G.A., Robey, R.L., Griffey, K.R., Tizzano, J.P., Kallman, M.J., Helton, D.R., Schoepp, D.D. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Discocyte--echinocyte reversibility in blood stored in CPD over a period of 56 days. Laczkó, J., Feó, C.J., Phillips, W. Transfusion (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Blood bank conditions and RBCs: the progressive loss of metabolic modulation. Messana, I., Ferroni, L., Misiti, F., Girelli, G., Pupella, S., Castagnola, M., Zappacosta, B., Giardina, B. Transfusion (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in vivo induces intraneuronal amyloid immunoreactivity in guinea pig hippocampus. Stephenson, D.T., Clemens, J.A. Neurochem. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
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