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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Subthalamus


Psychiatry related information on Subthalamus


High impact information on Subthalamus

  • Retrograde fluorescent tracers were used to demonstrate a previously unknown but sizable direct gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing neuronal pathway from the zona incerta to the neocortex in rats [9].
  • Many of the zona incerta neurons projecting to the parietal and occipital cortices could also be immunohistochemically stained with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA [9].
  • [3H]Estradiol was concentrated in the nuclei of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons in the nucleus arcuatus, nucleus periventricularis hypothalami, and the zona incerta [10].
  • In the hypothalamic dopaminergic cell groups, all the cells of groups A12 and A14, as well as the majority of the dopaminergic cells of the zona incerta (A13), were found to contain moderate to strong glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity, but none of the large dopaminergic cells of the posterior hypothalamus (A11) showed such immunoreactivity [11].
  • Moderate to strong hybridization was found in the dorsal thalamic nuclei, layers II and VI of the cerebral cortex, the anterior olfactory nucleus and primary olfactory cortex, the hypothalamic mammillary nuclei, the subthalamus, and the granule and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Subthalamus


Biological context of Subthalamus


Anatomical context of Subthalamus


Associations of Subthalamus with chemical compounds


Gene context of Subthalamus

  • Immunostaining intensity of TH was significantly lower (p = 0.0001) in - or - than in normal mice in perikarya of A12, but not in cell bodies of nonhypophysiotropic area A13 (medial zona incerta) [28].
  • Although synaptobrevin/VAMP 1 is less abundant, it is the main isoform in particular brain areas (e.g. zona incerta at the subthalamus or nerve terminals surrounding thalamic neurons) [29].
  • COX 2-ir neurons were also observed in the subparafascicular nucleus, the medial zona incerta, and pretectal area [30].
  • 26 prolactin-inhibited neurons were diffusely distributed from the nucleus arcuatus to the zona incerta [31].
  • An injection of MCH antiserum into mPOA prevented the rise in LH normally induced by leptin injected into the zona incerta [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Subthalamus


  1. Behavioural abnormalities and selective neuronal loss in HD transgenic mice expressing mutated full-length HD cDNA. Reddy, P.H., Williams, M., Charles, V., Garrett, L., Pike-Buchanan, L., Whetsell, W.O., Miller, G., Tagle, D.A. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Ibotenic acid lesions in the amygdaloid central nucleus but not in the lateral subthalamic area prevent the acquisition of differential Pavlovian conditioning of bradycardia in rabbits. McCabe, P.M., Gentile, C.G., Markgraf, C.G., Teich, A.H., Schneiderman, N. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Cholinergic mechanisms in generalized seizures: importance of the zona incerta. Brudzynski, S.M., Cruickshank, J.W., McLachlan, R.S. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of AMPA/kainic acid glutamate receptors in the zona incerta stimulates locomotor activity. Supko, D.E., Uretsky, N.J., Wallace, L.J. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Preoptic and subthalamic connections with the caudal brainstem are important for copulation in the male rat. Maillard-Gutekunst, C.A., Edwards, D.A. Behav. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Amnesia produced by pre-training infusion of serotonin into the substantia nigra. Díaz del Guante, M.A., Rivas, M., Prado-Alcalá, R.A., Quirarte, G.L. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Sleep deprivation increases the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in lateral hypothalamic cells. Brandt, J.A., Churchill, L., Rehman, A., Ellis, G., Mémet, S., Israël, A., Krueger, J.M. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of preoptic administration of angiotensin on lateral hypothalamic unit activity. Kucharczyk, J., Mogenson, G. Physiol. Behav. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. A major direct GABAergic pathway from zona incerta to neocortex. Lin, C.S., Nicolelis, M.A., Schneider, J.S., Chapin, J.K. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Estradiol is concentrated in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons of the hypothalamus. Sar, M. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in monoaminergic neurons of rat brain. Härfstrand, A., Fuxe, K., Cintra, A., Agnati, L.F., Zini, I., Wikström, A.C., Okret, S., Yu, Z.Y., Goldstein, M., Steinbusch, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. In situ hybridization mapping of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in rat brain. Sousa, R.J., Tannery, N.H., Lafer, E.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential neuronal expression and projections of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and MCH-gene-overprinted-polypeptide (MGOP) in the rat brain. Toumaniantz, G., Ferreira, P.C., Allaeys, I., Bittencourt, J.C., Nahon, J.L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence that the dopaminergic incerto-hypothalamic tract has a stimulatory effect on ovulation and gonadotrophin release. MacKenzie, F.J., Hunter, A.J., Daly, C., Wilson, C.A. Neuroendocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Ibotenic acid-induced lesions of the medial zona incerta decrease lordosis behavior in the female rat. Dornan, W.A., Peterson, M., Matuszewich, L., Malen, P. Behav. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. L-glutamate stimulation of the zona incerta in the rat decreases heart rate and blood pressure. Spencer, S.E., Sawyer, W.B., Loewy, A.D. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence that nerve cell bodies in the zona incerta influence ingestive behavior. Brown, B., Grossman, S.P. Brain Res. Bull. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Pitx2 distinguishes subtypes of terminally differentiated neurons in the developing mouse neuroepithelium. Martin, D.M., Skidmore, J.M., Fox, S.E., Gage, P.J., Camper, S.A. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Hyperprolactinemia increases and hypoprolactinemia decreases tyrosine hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the arcuate nuclei, but not the substantia nigra or zona incerta. Arbogast, L.A., Voogt, J.L. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. The distribution of cells containing estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta messenger ribonucleic acid in the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the sheep: comparison of males and females. Scott, C.J., Tilbrook, A.J., Simmons, D.M., Rawson, J.A., Chu, S., Fuller, P.J., Ing, N.H., Clarke, I.J. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunocytochemical colocalization of hypothalamic progestin receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase in steroid-treated monkeys. Kohama, S.G., Freesh, F., Bethea, C.L. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Topographic localization of neuromedin U-like structures in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical study. Honzawa, M., Sudoh, T., Minamino, N., Tohyama, M., Matsuo, H. Neuroscience (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the neurons of the tuberoinfundibular region and zona incerta examined after gonadal steroid hormone treatment. Morrell, J.I., Rosenthal, M.F., McCabe, J.T., Harrington, C.A., Chikaraishi, D.M., Pfaff, D.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of dopamine neuronal activity by glutamate receptor subtypes. Meltzer, L.T., Christoffersen, C.L., Serpa, K.A. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Actions of angiotensin and lisinopril on thalamic somatosensory neurons in normotensive, non-transgenic and hypertensive, transgenic rats. Albrecht, D., Henklein, P., Ganten, D. J. Hypertens. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Presynaptic GABA(B) receptors inhibit synaptic inputs to rat subthalamic neurons. Shen, K.Z., Johnson, S.W. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in brain catecholamine turnover and receptor sensitivity induced by social deprivation in rats. Weinstock, M., Speiser, Z., Ashkenazi, R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Prolactin gene disruption does not compromise differentiation of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons. Phelps, C.J., Horseman, N.D. Neuroendocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Distribution of synaptobrevin/VAMP 1 and 2 in rat brain. Raptis, A., Torrejón-Escribano, B., Gómez de Aranda, I., Blasi, J. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of inducible cyclooxygenase in rat brain. Breder, C.D., Dewitt, D., Kraig, R.P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of iontophoretically-applied prolactin on unit activity of the rat brain. Yamada, Y. Neuroendocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of leptin on luteinizing hormone release is exerted in the zona incerta and mediated by melanin-concentrating hormone. Murray, J.F., Mercer, J.G., Adan, R.A., Datta, J.J., Aldairy, C., Moar, K.M., Baker, B.I., Stock, M.J., Wilson, C.A. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Development of direct GABAergic projections from the zona incerta to the somatosensory cortex of the rat. Nicolelis, M.A., Chapin, J.K., Lin, R.C. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Comparison of the effects of castration and steroid replacement on incertohypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in male and female rats. Gunnet, J.W., Lookingland, K.J., Moore, K.E. Neuroendocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Birthdates of the tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of male and female rats. Balan, I.S., Ugrumov, M.V., Borisova, N.A., Calas, A., Pilgrim, C., Reisert, I., Thibault, J. Neuroendocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel phospholipase C, PLC-eta. Hwang, J.I., Oh, Y.S., Shin, K.J., Kim, H., Ryu, S.H., Suh, P.G. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
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