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MeSH Review

Hypothalamus, Middle

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Disease relevance of Hypothalamus, Middle


Psychiatry related information on Hypothalamus, Middle

  • The effects of these manipulations were examined in 3 different paradigms involving the stimulation of feeding by: (1) infusion of 25 nmol noradrenaline (NA) into the medial hypothalamus, (2) adaptation to a 20 h food deprivation schedule, and (3) the presentation of a palatable wet mash diet for 1 h each day to ad libitum-fed rats [6].

High impact information on Hypothalamus, Middle


Biological context of Hypothalamus, Middle


Anatomical context of Hypothalamus, Middle


Associations of Hypothalamus, Middle with chemical compounds

  • The existing evidence suggests that lesions in the lateral septum, medial accumbens, medial hypothalamus, or the dorsal and median raphe (or PCPA-induced depletion or serotonin) induce hyperreactivity to the experimenter in mice, rats, cats, dogs, and humans in every instance where they have been tested with one exception [16].
  • The anorexic action of PPA may result, in part, from its interaction with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors within the paraventricular medial hypothalamus (PVN) [21].
  • The levels of 5-HIAA decreased significantly in the POA-AH and medial hypothalamus [22].
  • Freshly prepared Ringer's solution was perfused at a rate of 1 microliter/min immediately after insertion of a dialysis probe into the medial hypothalamus, and brain perfusates were collected every 30 min into microtubes containing 0.2 M perchloric acid [23].
  • Tryptophan levels remained unchanged while tryptophan hydroxylase activity diminished significantly in POA-AH and medial hypothalamus [22].

Gene context of Hypothalamus, Middle


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypothalamus, Middle


  1. Identification and characterization of a second melanin-concentrating hormone receptor, MCH-2R. Sailer, A.W., Sano, H., Zeng, Z., McDonald, T.P., Pan, J., Pong, S.S., Feighner, S.D., Tan, C.P., Fukami, T., Iwaasa, H., Hreniuk, D.L., Morin, N.R., Sadowski, S.J., Ito, M., Ito, M., Bansal, A., Ky, B., Figueroa, D.J., Jiang, Q., Austin, C.P., MacNeil, D.J., Ishihara, A., Ihara, M., Kanatani, A., Van der Ploeg, L.H., Howard, A.D., Liu, Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute tachycardia and pressor effects following injections of kainic acid into the antero-dorsal medial hypothalamus. Rockhold, R.W., Jin, C., Huang, H.M., Farley, J.M. Neuropharmacology (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. GABAergic control of receptivity in the female rat. McCarthy, M.M., Masters, D.B., Fiber, J.M., López-Colomé, A.M., Beyer, C., Komisaruk, B.R., Feder, H.H. Neuroendocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Stress-induced ACTH release after removal of the hypothalamus in rats with atrophied neural lobe. Marton, J., Stark, E., Makara, G.B., Palkovits, M. Acta physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of brain-region-specific forms of obesity by agouti. Kas, M.J., Tiesjema, B., van Dijk, G., Garner, K.M., Barsh, G.S., Brake, O.T., Verhaagen, J., Adan, R.A. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparison of the effects of the 5-HT1 agonists TFMPP and RU 24969 on feeding following peripheral or medial hypothalamic injection. Fletcher, P.J., Ming, Z.H., Zack, M.H., Coscina, D.V. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Feeding: satiety signal from intestine triggers brain's noradrenergic mechanism. Myers, R.D., McCaleb, M.L. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Ventral medial hypothalamus: involvement in hypoglycemic convulsions. Kellar, K.J., Langley, A.E., Marks, B.H., O'Neill, J.J. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Central nervous system action of peptides to influence gastrointestinal motor function. Taché, Y., Garrick, T., Raybould, H. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons throughout the hypothalamus receive glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactive synapses: a double pre-embedding immunocytochemical study with particulate silver and HRP. van den Pol, A.N. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of upstream glucokinase promoter activity in transgenic mice and identification of glucokinase in rare neuroendocrine cells in the brain and gut. Jetton, T.L., Liang, Y., Pettepher, C.C., Zimmerman, E.C., Cox, F.G., Horvath, K., Matschinsky, F.M., Magnuson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Progesterone and the neural mechanisms of hamster sexual behavior. DeBold, J.F., Frye, C.A. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Extracellular hypothalamic serotonin levels after dorsal raphe nuclei stimulation of lean (Fa/Fa) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. De Fanti, B.A., Gavel, D.A., Hamilton, J.S., Horwitz, B.A. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Cardiovascular responses to centrally administered serotonin in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sukamoto, T., Yamamoto, T., Watanabe, S., Ueki, S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of monoamine concentrations in the brains of adult male and female Japanese quail. Ottinger, M.A., Schumacher, M., Clarke, R.N., Duchala, C.S., Turek, R., Balthazart, J. Poult. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Neural systems and the inhibitory modulation of agonistic behavior: a comparison of mammalian species. Albert, D.J., Walsh, M.L. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates catecholamine release in hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex in freely moving rats as assessed by microdialysis. Lavicky, J., Dunn, A.J. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. "When a rat smells a cat": the distribution of Fos immunoreactivity in rat brain following exposure to a predatory odor. Dielenberg, R.A., Hunt, G.E., McGregor, I.S. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Distribution of neurons expressing neurokinin B in the rat brain: immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Marksteiner, J., Sperk, G., Krause, J.E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Behavioral effects of microinjections of SR 95103, a new GABA-A antagonist, into the medial hypothalamus or the mesencephalic central gray. Schmitt, P., Di Scala, G., Brandao, M.L., Karli, P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Overview of adrenergic anorectic agents. Wellman, P.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Long-term pinealectomy alters hypothalamic serotonin metabolism in the rat. Míguez, J., Martín, F., Míguez, I., Aldegunde, M. J. Pineal Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of histamine release from the rat hypothalamus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Itoh, Y., Oishi, R., Nishibori, M., Saeki, K. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. NPY messenger RNA is increased in medial hypothalamus of anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Chance, W.T., Sheriff, S., Kasckow, J.W., Regmi, A., Balasubramaniam, A. Regul. Pept. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Ghrelin: a hypothalamic GH-releasing factor in domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Ahmed, S., Harvey, S. J. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Twenty-four hour rhythms of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in rats injected with Freund's adjuvant. Esquifino, A.I., Selgas, L., Vara, E., Arce, A., Cardinali, D.P. Biological signals and receptors. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences. Li, Q., Holmes, A., Ma, L., Van de Kar, L.D., Garcia, F., Murphy, D.L. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential modulation of feline defensive rage behavior in the medial hypothalamus by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. Hassanain, M., Bhatt, S., Siegel, A. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Local inhibition of organic cation transporters increases extracellular serotonin in the medial hypothalamus. Feng, N., Mo, B., Johnson, P.L., Orchinik, M., Lowry, C.A., Renner, K.J. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Intermale social aggression: reinstatement in castrated rats by implants of testosterone propionate in the medial hypothalamus. Albert, D.J., Dyson, E.M., Walsh, M.L. Physiol. Behav. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. An animal model for type 2 alcoholism? Alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior following lesions in the raphe nuclei, medial hypothalamus, or ventral striatum-septal area. Bergvall, A.H., Fahlke, C., Hansen, S. Physiol. Behav. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Differentiation of intracranial morphine self-administration behavior among five brain regions in mice. David, V., Cazala, P. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1994) [Pubmed]
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