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Gene Review

SMC2  -  structural maintenance of chromosomes 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CAP-E, CAPE, Chromosome-associated protein E, PRO0324, SMC protein 2, ...
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Disease relevance of SMC2


Psychiatry related information on SMC2


High impact information on SMC2

  • A detailed record of sea surface temperature from sediments of the Cape Basin in the subtropical South Atlantic indicates a previously undocumented progression of marine climate change between 41 and 18 thousand years before the present (ky B.P.), during the last glacial period [11].
  • Systematic seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotopic signature of methane gas occur in the anoxic sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, a lagoonal basin on North Carolina's Outer Banks [12].
  • Here, live-cell analysis of chicken DT40 cells bearing a conditional knockout of condensin subunit SMC2 revealed that condensin-depleted chromosomes abruptly lose their compact architecture during anaphase and form massive chromatin bridges [13].
  • Concern grows about adolescent pregnancy in Cape Verde [14].
  • We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase IIalpha and the condensin subunit, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), in unextracted metaphase chromosomes, with SMC2 localizing to a 150-200-nm-diameter central core [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of SMC2


Biological context of SMC2

  • The hCAP-C/hCAP-E complex is the human ortholog of the Xenopus chromosome-associated protein (XCAP)-C/XCAP-E complex required for mitotic chromosome condensation [21].
  • Cohesin, the Smc1/3 complex, mediates sister chromatid cohesion while two condensin complexes containing Smc2/4 facilitate chromosome condensation [22].
  • The canonical monomers (approximately 170 bp) of an abundant (1.9 x 10(6) copies per diploid genome) satellite DNA sequence family in the genome of Cyprinodon variegatus, a "pupfish" that ranges along the Atlantic coast from Cape Cod to central Mexico, are divergent in base sequence in 10 of 12 samples collected from natural populations [23].
  • The molecular and genealogical evidence is consistent with transmission of the major mutation to Western Germany and the Cape near the end of the 17th century, confirming the existence of a founder effect for FA in South Africa [24].
  • METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a public health perspective using primary treatment outcomes, healthcare utilisation and cost data (Jan 2004 local prices; US dollars 1=7.6 Rands) derived from the Cape Town AIDS Cohort [25].

Anatomical context of SMC2

  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus has an uneven geographic distribution, with a high incidence in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The precise molecular events associated with tumorigenesis of esophageal cancer in this region have not been characterized [26].
  • SETTING: Patients were seen in the Department of Neurology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. This is an 800-bed teaching hospital, with approximately 5000 patients seen annually in the Department of Neurology. PATIENTS: Patients were identified by their unique presentation with a severe isolated motor neuropathy in the lower limbs [27].
  • A phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological and nucleotide sequence (nuclear ITS1 and plastid trnL-F) data confirms the monophyly of the African Ehrharta species and shows that the diversification of this lineage was centered in the Cape region [28].
  • Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35) [29].
  • Light is integrated effectively in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis), and Fos expression is gated according to the phase of the circadian clock [30].

Associations of SMC2 with chemical compounds

  • Coding sequence mutations in EtaA were found in 11 of 11 multidrug-resistant MTb patient isolates from Cape Town, South Africa. These isolates showed broad cross-resistance to thiocarbonyl containing drugs including ETA, thiacetazone, and thiocarlide [31].
  • These methods are applied to the African Restionaceae in the Cape Floristic Region [32].
  • Daily patterns of melatonin secretion were examined in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) under natural continuous daylight at Cape Bird, Antarctica (77 degrees S) [33].
  • We describe a community MDR-TB outbreak among HIV-seronegative patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Isolates were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and dot-blot hybridization analysis of mutations conferring resistance for isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and ethambutol [34].
  • The Cape Town Equity Gauge project is presented as one example of a response to the challenge of inequity [35].

Other interactions of SMC2

  • Based on the sequence conservation and mitotic chromosome localization, hCAP-C-hCAP-E was determined to be the human ortholog of the Xenopus SMC complex, XCAP-C-XCAP-E [36].
  • The coiled coils of SMC5/6 and SMC2/4 (condensin) are slightly more constrained than the presumed spacer rods, diverging 10-15% [37].
  • Moreover, chromatid axes, as defined by topoisomerase II and hCAP-E localization, are disorganized in the absence of hCAP-D2, and the resolution and segregation of sister chromatids are impaired [38].
  • These efforts have resulted in the identification of a physical association between the DNA ligase IV polypeptide and the human condensin subunit known as hCAP-E [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SMC2

  • Using satellite tracking, we investigated the migratory movements of adult females from one of the world's largest nesting aggregations at Cape Verde, West Africa. In direct contrast with the accepted life-history model for this species, results reveal two distinct adult foraging strategies that appear to be linked to body size [40].
  • Immunofluorescence studies reveal colocalization of DNA ligase IV and hCAP-E in the interphase nucleus, whereas mitotic cells display colocalization of both polypeptides on mitotic chromosomes [39].
  • METHODS: Correlation between difference (Delta) from baseline at week 4, 8, 12 and 48 in TLC, CD4 cell count and viral load was determined in patients initiating HAART in phase III clinical trials between 1995 and 2001 at the HIV Clinical Research Unit, Somerset Hospital, Cape Town. RESULTS: The study included 266 patients [41].
  • From April 1976 through March 1999, 41 (7.6%) patients were diagnosed with cancer among a heterogeneous population of renal allograft recipients treated at our institution in Cape Town, South Africa. The incidence of malignancies was comparable in white and nonwhite patients [42].
  • METHODS: A case-control study was performed at a University Hospital serving developing communities in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, over the period October 1997 to April 2000 [43].


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  11. Glacial surface temperatures of the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Sachs, J.P., Anderson, R.F., Lehman, S.J. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotopic signature of biogenic methane in a coastal sediment. Martens, C.S., Blair, N.E., Green, C.D., Des Marais, D.J. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
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  15. Visualization of early chromosome condensation: a hierarchical folding, axial glue model of chromosome structure. Kireeva, N., Lakonishok, M., Kireev, I., Hirano, T., Belmont, A.S. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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