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Gene Review

LOC292861  -  kallikrein

Rattus norvegicus

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Disease relevance of LOC292861

  • Reversal of renal fibrosis, inflammation, and glomerular hypertrophy by kallikrein gene delivery [1].
  • Moreover, kallikrein reversed salt-induced glomerular hypertrophy and inhibited the increase in levels of the cell cycle-inhibitory proteins p21 and p27 [1].
  • Two weeks after adenovirus injection, salt-induced glomerular sclerosis, tubular protein cast formation, and monocyte/ macrophage accumulation in the kidney were notably reversed by kallikrein [1].
  • The kallikrein/kinin system is beneficial in ischemia/reperfusion injury in heart, controversial in brain, but detrimental in lung, liver, and intestine [2].
  • Taurine amplifies renal kallikrein and prevents salt-induced hypertension in Dahl rats [3].

High impact information on LOC292861


Chemical compound and disease context of LOC292861


Biological context of LOC292861

  • Such involvement would suggest that kallikrein is not only potentially involved in an important function of brain development, but also available for studies on regenerative medicine for neurons [11].
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, and reduced/oxidized glutathione measurement revealed that the oxidative stress was augmented by kallikrein administration in both ischemic and reperfusion phases [2].
  • This 37,000 dalton kallikrein precursor was hybrid-arrested by a kallikrein cDNA encoding tissue kallikrein which was isolated from a rat submandibular gland cDNA library [12].
  • They were found to be the protein products of the rKlk2 (tonin) and the rKlk9 genes by amino acid sequence analysis (nomenclature of the genes and proteins of the kallikrein family is according to the proposal of the discussion panel from the participants of the KININ '91 meeting held Sept. 8-14, 1991, in Munich, Germany) [13].
  • Esterase A2 fraction could not induce direct contraction of the rat uterus, and A2 did not cause a transient decrease in rat blood pressure when injected iv, both of which are criteria for kallikrein activity [14].

Anatomical context of LOC292861


Associations of LOC292861 with chemical compounds

  • Since bradykinin B(2)-receptor antagonist, Hoe140, did not suppress the growth-stimulating effect, kallikrein-mediated kinin release does not appear to be involved in this effect [11].
  • Kallikrein gene delivery also dramatically reduced collagens I, III, and IV and reticulin deposition, accompanied by a decline in myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression [1].
  • In addition, kallikrein protected against salt-induced renal injury by diminishing urinary protein and blood urea nitrogen levels [1].
  • These protective actions of kallikrein were abolished by icatibant, indicating a B2 receptor-mediated event [1].
  • The purified cardiac enzyme has both N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester esterolytic and kinin-releasing activities, and displays parallelism with standard curves in a kallikrein radioimmunoassay, indicating it to have immunological identity with tissue kallikrein [18].

Other interactions of LOC292861


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC292861


  1. Reversal of renal fibrosis, inflammation, and glomerular hypertrophy by kallikrein gene delivery. Bledsoe, G., Shen, B., Yao, Y., Zhang, J.J., Chao, L., Chao, J. Hum. Gene Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Early activation of bradykinin B2 receptor aggravates reactive oxygen species generation and renal damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. Chiang, W.C., Chien, C.T., Lin, W.W., Lin, S.L., Chen, Y.M., Lai, C.F., Wu, K.D., Chao, J., Tsai, T.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Taurine amplifies renal kallikrein and prevents salt-induced hypertension in Dahl rats. Ideishi, M., Miura, S., Sakai, T., Sasaguri, M., Misumi, Y., Arakawa, K. J. Hypertens. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct action of rat urinary kallikrein on rat kidney to release renin. Suzuki, S., Franco-Saenz, R., Tan, S.Y., Mulrow, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Kallikrein-induced uterine contraction independent of kinin formation. Chao, J., Buse, J., Shimamoto, K., Margolius, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Naloxone attenuates the hypotension induced by Hageman factor. Goldstein, D.J., Pitterman, A.B., Frech, M., Kelly, G., Pisano, J.J., Keiser, H.R. Life Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of hypotensive responses of captopril and enalapril by the kallikrein inhibitor aprotinin in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sharma, J.N., Amrah, S.S., Noor, A.R. Pharmacology (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone on the urniary excretion of kallikrein and of prostaglandin E-like substance in the rat. Colina-Chourio, J., McGiff, J.C., Nasjletti, A. Contributions to nephrology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. The control by estradiol of pituitary tumor and cell growth is not correlated with that of kallikrein gene expression. Faurobert, E., Albaladéjo, V., Joly-Pharaboz, M.O., Girolami, J.P., André, J. Cancer Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. BAEE esterase (kallikrein-like) activity in parotid saliva of normal rats and rats with various forms of experimental hypertension (genuine, renovascular and DOCA salt hypertension). Schmid, G., Neff, N., Hempel, K., Heidland, A. Contributions to nephrology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Growth-stimulating Effect of Kallikrein on Rat Neural Stem Cells. Kizuki, K., Ookubo, R., Iwadate, H., Sada, K. Yakugaku Zasshi (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Active kallikrein, preprokallikrein, and kallikrein-inhibitor complex. Chao, J., Chao, L., Woodley, C.M., Gerald, W., Margolius, H.S. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Protein products of the rat kallikrein gene family. Substrate specificities of kallikrein rK2 (tonin) and kallikrein rK9. Moreau, T., Brillard-Bourdet, M., Bouhnik, J., Gauthier, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence for an androgen-dependent urinary arginine esterase in the rat: separation from other urinary arginine esterases including kallikrein. McPartland, R.P., Sustarsic, D.L., Rapp, J.P. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Kallikrein rK10-induced kinin-independent, direct activation of NO-formation and relaxation of rat isolated aortic rings. Wassdal, I., Hull, R., Gerskowitch, V.P., Berg, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of membrane-bound kallikrein and renin in the kidney. Nishimura, K., Alhenc-Gelas, F., White, A., Erdös, E.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Adrenal kallikrein. Nolly, H., Saed, G., Carretero, O.A., Scicli, G., Scicli, A.G. Hypertension (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification, purification, and localization of tissue kallikrein in rat heart. Xiong, W., Chen, L.M., Woodley-Miller, C., Simson, J.A., Chao, J. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of aprotinin on the renal response to vasopressin in diabetes insipidus rats. Fejes-Toth, G., Frölich, J.C., Naray-Fejes-Toth, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Respective roles of kallikrein and endopeptidase 24.11 in the metabolic pathway of atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat. Vanneste, Y., Pauwels, S., Lambotte, L., Michel, A., Dimaline, R., Deschodt-Lanckman, M. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Purification of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone-degrading enzyme by affinity chromatography. Koch, Y., Baram, T., Hazum, E., Fridkin, M. Endocrine research communications. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of a kininogenase from rat vascular tissue resembling tissue kallikrein. Nolly, H., Scicli, A.G., Scicli, G., Carretero, O.A. Circ. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of rat kallikrein and epithelial polarity in transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Abe, M., Nakamura, F., Tan, F., Deddish, P.A., Colley, K.J., Becker, R.P., Skidgel, R.A., Erdös, E.G. Hypertension (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation of rat submandibula kallikreins by using immunoadsorption chromatography. Gautvik, K.M., Johansen, L., Svindahl, K., Nustad, K., Orstavik, T.B. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
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