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Gene Review

pre  -  recombination protein

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of pre


Psychiatry related information on pre

  • The epidemiologic landscape of causative pathogens and clinical characteristics of bacterial meningitis varies with several clinical factors including preceding/pre-existent medical and/or surgical conditions, modes of contraction, geographic distributions, status of vaccinations, the study time periods and differences among age groups [6].

High impact information on pre


Chemical compound and disease context of pre


Biological context of pre

  • The institution of more stringent infection control measures was followed by the return of nosocomial MRSA acquisition rates to pre-outbreak levels [17].
  • Observations made predominantly in the pre-antibiotic era suggested that infections with less virulent organisms, by virtue of their indolent subacute course, favored an antibody response predisposing to immune complex glomerulonephritis [18].
  • Because only 50% of the active sites participated in this pre-steady-state reaction, the maximum steady-state rate consistent with the involvement of this cystine in the enzymatic reaction would be 4 s(-1) [19].
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pre-exposure of bacteria to a subinhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of loracarbef (LY 163892) or daptomycin (LY 146032) could modify bacterial susceptibility to serum bactericidal activity and to phagocytosis and killing by murine peritoneal macrophages and by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes [20].
  • Chloramphenicol (CM) at 100 micrograms/ml did not completely inhibit complex formation or DNA replication, indicating that pre-existing host proteins were involved in these processes [21].

Anatomical context of pre

  • A break in the natural barrier to infection was also present in the majority of cases, for example, trauma, wound, or pre-existing decubitus ulcer in skin and soft tissue infections; endotracheal tube in pneumonia; and a catheter bypassing urethra or skin in urinary and vascular infections, respectively [22].
  • The objective of this study was to examine the production of antibacterial factor(s) by uterine epithelial cells from pre- and postmenopausal women [23].
  • However, if the Ca(2+)-ATPase were pre-digested with calpain I from human erythrocytes, which removed its calmodulin-binding domain (along with domain B), multiple cleavages by V8 protease in domain A were then readily observed [24].
  • The fluorosphingomyelins can be used to estimate with great sensitivity the sphingomyelinase activity in extracts of tissues or cells, in tears, and probably in hair follicles, as well as diagnose Niemann-Pick disease, either pre- or post-natally[25]
  • Optimizations performed using concanavalin A and E. coli JM105 show that immobilization methods involving pre-activated membranes significantly reduce the time required to create a functional lectin layer on the membrane surface [26].

Associations of pre with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pre


  1. Elimination or rescue of cells in culture by specifically targeted liposomes containing methotrexate or formyl-tetrahydrofolate. Machy, P., Leserman, L.D. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Periannular extension of infective endocarditis. Graupner, C., Vilacosta, I., SanRomán, J., Ronderos, R., Sarriá, C., Fernández, C., Mújica, R., Sanz, O., Sanmartín, J.V., Pinto, A.G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Native valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Clinical and microbiologic features. Caputo, G.M., Archer, G.L., Calderwood, S.B., DiNubile, M.J., Karchmer, A.W. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in diabetic patients. Endocarditis and mortality. Cooper, G., Platt, R. Am. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Infected aortic aneurysms. A changing entity. Gomes, M.N., Choyke, P.L., Wallace, R.B. Ann. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Culture-proven bacterial meningitis in elderly patients in southern Taiwan: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. Chang, C.C., Lu, C.H., Huang, C.R., Chuang, Y.C., Tsai, N.W., Chen, S.F., Chang, H.W., Chang, W.N. Acta neurologica Taiwanica. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. B-cell proliferative and differentiative responses after autologous peripheral blood stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. Kiesel, S., Pezzutto, A., Moldenhauer, G., Haas, R., Körbling, M., Hunstein, W., Dörken, B. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus with human neutrophils and the down-regulation of TNF receptors. Ferrante, A., Martin, A.J., Bates, E.J., Kowanko, I.C., Harvey, D.P., Parsons, D., Rathjen, D.A., Russ, G., Dayer, J.M. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The ompA signal peptide directed secretion of Staphylococcal nuclease A by Escherichia coli. Takahara, M., Hibler, D.W., Barr, P.J., Gerlt, J.A., Inouye, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Pre-steady state beta-lactamase kinetics. The trapping of a covalent intermediate and the interpretation of pH rate profiles. Anderson, E.G., Pratt, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Pre-steady state beta-lactamase kinetics. Observation of a covalent intermediate during turnover of a fluorescent cephalosporin by the beta-lactamase of STaphylococcus aureus PC1. Anderson, E.G., Pratt, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. A randomised comparison of meropenem with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in adults. Meropenem Meningitis Study Group. Schmutzhard, E., Williams, K.J., Vukmirovits, G., Chmelik, V., Pfausler, B., Featherstone, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Enoxacin in lower respiratory tract infections. Wijnands, W.J., van Griethuysen, A.J., Vree, T.B., Van Klingeren, B., van Herwaarden, C.L. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of a disinfectant udder wash and a post-milking teat dip on the bacterial population of the teat end and on the rate of new intramammary infection. Sheldrake, R.F., Hoare, R.J. J. Dairy Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Can pre-operative skin marking transfer methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between patients?: A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT. Wilson, J., Tate, D. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. The effectiveness of ethanol gauze for hand disinfection in surgical wards. Takahashi, S., Terao, Y., Nagano, Y. J. Hosp. Infect. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Management and epidemiologic analyses of an outbreak due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Goetz, M.B., Mulligan, M.E., Kwok, R., O'Brien, H., Caballes, C., Garcia, J.P. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Glomerulonephritis in bacterial endocarditis. Neugarten, J., Baldwin, D.S. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Formation of the cystine between cysteine 225 and cysteine 462 from ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase is kinetically competent. Erickson, H.K. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of loracarbef (LY 163892) and daptomycin (LY 146032) on bacterial phagocytosis, killing and serum sensitivity. Tripodi, M.F., Adinolfi, L.E., Utili, R., Marrone, A., Ruggiero, G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Structure and properties of the rapidly sedimenting replicating complex of staphylococcal phage K DNA. Rees, P.J., Fry, B.A. J. Gen. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The current spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a tertiary care hospital. Musher, D.M., Lamm, N., Darouiche, R.O., Young, E.J., Hamill, R.J., Landon, G.C. Medicine (Baltimore) (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of menstrual status on antibacterial activity and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor production by human uterine epithelial cells in culture. Fahey, J.V., Wira, C.R. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure--function relationship of the human erythrocyte plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase revealed by V8 protease treatment. Wang, K.K., Roufogalis, B.D., Kuo, T.H. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. A fluorometric determination of sphingomyelinase by use of fluorescent derivatives of sphingomyelin, and its application to diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease. Gatt, S., Dinur, T., Barenholz, Y. Clin. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Electrochemical biosensor array for the identification of microorganisms based on lectin-lipopolysaccharide recognition. Ertl, P., Mikkelsen, S.R. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence for the existence of a multidrug efflux transporter distinct from NorA in Staphylococcus aureus. Kaatz, G.W., Seo, S.M., O'Brien, L., Wahiduzzaman, M., Foster, T.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Penetration of ceforanide and cefamandole into the right atrial appendage, pericardial fluid, sternum, and intercostal muscle of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Mullany, L.D., French, M.A., Nightingale, C.H., Low, H.B., Ellison, L.H., Quintiliani, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Consistent rates of kill of Staphylococcus aureus by gentamicin over a 6-fold clinical concentration range in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model (IVPDM). Schafer, J.A., Hovde, L.B., Rotschafer, J.C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Liposome-encapsulated aminoglycosides in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Schiffelers, R., Storm, G., Bakker-Woudenberg, I. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin ('pseudomonic acid')--a controlled trial. Casewell, M.W., Hill, R.L. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of bacterial clones encoding bovine caseins by direct immunological screening of the cDNA library. Ivanov, V.N., Kershulite, D.R., Bayev, A.A., Akhundova, A.A., Sulimova, G.E., Judinkova, E.S., Gorodetsky, S.I. Gene (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of plasma exchange on the in vitro monocyte function of patients with immune complex diseases. Steven, M.M., Tanner, A.R., Holdstock, G.E., Cockerell, R., Smith, J., Smith, D.S., Hamblin, T.J., Wright, R. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Staphylococcal colonization in atopic dermatitis and the effect of topical mupirocin therapy. Lever, R., Hadley, K., Downey, D., Mackie, R. Br. J. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Central venous line sepsis in the intensive care unit. A study comparing antibiotic coated catheters with plain catheters. Thornton, J., Todd, N.J., Webster, N.R. Anaesthesia. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Rapid and sensitive immunomagnetic-electrochemiluminescent detection of staphyloccocal enterotoxin B. Kijek, T.M., Rossi, C.A., Moss, D., Parker, R.W., Henchal, E.A. J. Immunol. Methods (2000) [Pubmed]
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