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Gene Review

Hpx  -  hemopexin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Hemopexin
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Disease relevance of Hpx


High impact information on Hpx

  • Albumin-producing SV40-immortalized hepatocytes secreted a variety of other plasma proteins, including transferrin, hemopexin, and the third component of complement [6].
  • The protein sequence encoded by the last four exons of the transin gene shows some homology to two regions of the heme-binding protein hemopexin [7].
  • These results suggest that heme, in amounts sufficient to affect the rate-limiting steps of heme synthesis and degradation, can only enter hepatocytes in primary culture when the binding capacity of hemopexin for heme has been exceeded or altered [8].
  • A 44-kDa remnant of MT1-MMP, with an N terminus at Gly(285), is also present on the cell after autolytic shedding of the catalytic domain from the hemopexin carboxyl (C) domain, but its role in gelatinase A activation is unknown [9].
  • With the exception of G-CSFR-MPL chimera, the receptors also mediated a similarly high stimulation via the IL-6 response element of the rat beta-fibrinogen and hemopexin genes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hpx

  • The transcription rate of Hx was found to be increased 11-fold by the calcium ionophore A23187, 25-fold by the calcium ionophore ionomycin, and 4-5-fold by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in serum-starved H4IIE rat hepatoma cells [1].
  • A maximum acute-phase response on d 7 after the operation was characterized by an increase of 181, 445, and 19% for alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, hepatoglobin, and hemopexin, whereas other acute-phase proteins remained below control levels, for example, by 11, 25, and 38% for albumin, transferrin, and prealbumin, respectively [11].

Biological context of Hpx


Anatomical context of Hpx


Associations of Hpx with chemical compounds

  • Adult animals exposed to hyperoxia (95% oxygen) showed a 3-fold increase in hepatic hemopexin mRNA content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[12]
  • The amino-terminal domain of rat hemopexin contains two histidine residues that are conserved in the human and rat sequences and are the most likely heme axial ligands [12].
  • When hepatocytes were maintained in CDM supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide and transfected with plasmids containing the E1A and E1B genes, it was possible to derive cell lines that retained the ability to express several liver-specific genes, including albumin, transferrin, hemopexin, and the third component of complement [15].
  • To assess if the observed increase in Con-A reactivity of specific serum proteins reflects an increase in carbohydrate moieties in these proteins in addition to an increase in their protein concentrations, a heme binding serum glycoprotein, hemopexin, also an acute phase reactant, was selected as a marker protein [16].
  • Abnormal glycosylation of hemopexin in arthritic rats can be blocked by bindarit [16].

Regulatory relationships of Hpx

  • In growing cultures, the IL-6 and IL-11 stimulation of thiostatin and hemopexin is enhanced by TGF-beta, whereas the stimulation of other APP is reduced [17].

Other interactions of Hpx


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hpx

  • Hemopexin is synthesized in peripheral nerves but not in central nervous system and accumulates after axotomy [14].
  • Using hemopexin cDNA probes (GIG-3, -7, and -12) we identified a mRNA on Northern blots, which increased in concentration following bGH, compared with untreated cells [22].
  • It was found that the Hpx rats, given subcutaneous injections of GH twice during the light period to mimic a male pattern of GH secretion, showed obvious light-dark fluctuation in ACD activities with high values in the dark period, and similar results were obtained in sham-operated males [23].
  • After hypophysectomy (Hpx) thyroid involution ensued [24].
  • When a new liver was inserted into the perfusion medium containing newly synthesized secreted proteins, only two proteins, hemopexin and an unidentified protein, were transported into the bile from the perfusion medium; other biliary proteins were presumed to come directly from the hepatocyte [25].


  1. Regulation of hemopexin transcription by calcium ionophores and phorbol ester in hepatoma cells. Stred, S.E., Cote, D., Weinstock, R.S., Messina, J.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment of surgically induced acute liver failure by transplantation of conditionally immortalized hepatocytes. Nakamura, J., Okamoto, T., Schumacher, I.K., Tabei, I., Chowdhury, N.R., Chowdhury, J.R., Fox, I.J. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. A new animal model for evaluation of long-term growth rate over one month by rhGH/PLGA microcapsule formulations. Takada, S., Kurokawa, T., Misaki, M., Taira, K., Yamagata, Y. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of hemopexin, albumin and liver fatty acid-binding protein with protoporphyrin. Knobler, E., Poh-Fitzpatrick, M.B., Kravetz, D., Vincent, W.R., Muller-Eberhard, U., Vincent, S.H. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Long-lasting accumulation of hemopexin in permanently transected peripheral nerves and its down-regulation during regeneration. Madore, N., Sagot, Y., Guinaudy, M.J., Cochard, P., Swerts, J.P. J. Neurosci. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of albumin gene expression in a series of rat hepatocyte cell lines immortalized by simian virus 40 and maintained in chemically defined medium. Woodworth, C.D., Isom, H.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation of the oncogene and epidermal growth factor-induced transin gene: complex control in rat fibroblasts. Matrisian, L.M., Leroy, P., Ruhlmann, C., Gesnel, M.C., Breathnach, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of hemopexin on heme-mediated repression of 5-aminolevulinate synthase and induction of heme oxygenase in cultured hepatocytes. Sinclair, P.R., Bement, W.J., Healey, J.F., Gorman, N., Sinclair, J.F., Bonkovsky, H.L., Liem, H.H., Muller-Eberhard, U. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Domain interactions in the gelatinase A.TIMP-2.MT1-MMP activation complex. The ectodomain of the 44-kDa form of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase does not modulate gelatinase A activation. Overall, C.M., Tam, E., McQuibban, G.A., Morrison, C., Wallon, U.M., Bigg, H.F., King, A.E., Roberts, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Signaling by the cytoplasmic domain of hematopoietin receptors involves two distinguishable mechanisms in hepatic cells. Baumann, H., Gearing, D., Ziegler, S.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Partially hepatectomized rats: a model for the study of the effect of toxins on the plasma protein profiles of nascent hepatocytes. Fouad, F.M., Farrell, P.G., Marshall, W.D., Scherer, R., Ruhenstroth-Bauer, G. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Rat hemopexin. Molecular cloning, primary structural characterization, and analysis of gene expression. Nikkilä, H., Gitlin, J.D., Muller-Eberhard, U. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of an interleukin-6 responsive element and characterization of the proximal promoter region of the rat hemopexin gene. Nagae, Y., Muller-Eberhard, U. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Hemopexin is synthesized in peripheral nerves but not in central nervous system and accumulates after axotomy. Swerts, J.P., Soula, C., Sagot, Y., Guinaudy, M.J., Guillemot, J.C., Ferrara, P., Duprat, A.M., Cochard, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Transformation of differentiated rat hepatocytes with adenovirus and adenovirus DNA. Woodworth, C.D., Isom, H.C. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Abnormal glycosylation of hemopexin in arthritic rats can be blocked by bindarit. Saso, L., Silvestrini, B., Zwain, I., Guglielmotti, A., Luparini, M.R., Cioli, V., Cheng, C.Y. J. Rheumatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Divergent transforming growth factor-beta effects on IL-6 regulation of acute phase plasma proteins in rat hepatoma cells. Campos, S.P., Wang, Y., Koj, A., Baumann, H. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of hemopexin synthesis in degenerating and regenerating rat sciatic nerve. Madore, N., Camborieux, L., Bertrand, N., Swerts, J.P. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of leukocytic endogenous mediator on hemopexin, transferr, and liver catalase. Merriman, C.R., Upchurch, H.F., Kampschmidt, R.F. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Iron deficiency and marginal vitamin A deficiency affect growth, hematological indices and the regulation of iron metabolism genes in rats. Strube, Y.N., Beard, J.L., Ross, A.C. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Partial characterization of intra- and extracellular forms of the glycoprotein hemopexin in liver cell culture and cell-free translation. Katz, N.R., Giffhorn, S., Goldfarb, V., Muller-Eberhard, U. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of hemopexin as a GH-regulated gene. Stred, S.E., Messina, J.L. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Sex difference in the daily rhythm of hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities in rats is regulated by growth hormone release. Furukawa, T., Manabe, S., Watanabe, T., Sharyo, S., Mori, Y. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of the sympathetic nervous system in the control of thyroid compensatory growth of normal and hypophysectomized rats. Romeo, H.E., Boado, R.J., Cardinali, D.P. Neuroendocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanisms of secretion of proteins into bile: studies in the perfused rat liver. Kloppel, T.M., Brown, W.R., Reichen, J. Hepatology (1986) [Pubmed]
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