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Chemical Compound Review

Toluylene Red     N',N',3-trimethylphenazine- 2,8-diamine...

Synonyms: NEUTRAL RED, Basic Red, SureCN39673, Neutral Red W, NSC-3092, ...
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Disease relevance of Toluylene Red


High impact information on Toluylene Red


Chemical compound and disease context of Toluylene Red


Biological context of Toluylene Red

  • Neutral red dye uptake, an index for cell viability, was enhanced with increasing cell density and in vitro maturation, but was reduced in dense cultures exposed to anoxic/hypoglycemic conditions [16].
  • Results also showed that neither MTT or NR can distinguish between the modes of cell death, nor detect the early onset of apoptosis revealed by Hoechst/PI [17].
  • Staurosporine (SSP)-induced apoptosis and H(2)O(2)-induced necrosis were evaluated by two cytotoxicity assays, neutral red (NR) and methyl-thiazolyl tertrazolium (MTT), in comparison with a differential dye uptake assay, using Hoechst33342/propidium iodide (Hoechst/PI) [17].
  • Changes in c-myc gene expression were compared with DNA adduct formation, growth inhibition, and cell-cycle progression as determined by (32)P-postlabelling, neutral red (NR), and flow cytometric analyses, respectively [18].
  • In addition, the physiological effect of dye administration on systemic blood pressure was determined, as well as uptake curves for Neutral Red into plasma and brain [19].

Anatomical context of Toluylene Red

  • A previously described technique from the author's laboratories for purification of pancreatic islets by fluorescence-activated cell sorting used the dye neutral red (NR) to obtain specific fluorescence of islets sufficient to give a sorting signal [20].
  • These cells were not stained with the vital dye Neutral Red. Two other types of cell (T2L and T2H) were recorded together as consecutive negative jumps in Vm, but only in areas of the epithelium previously stained with Neutral Red. T2L behaved like T1 cells to K+ but with a low Vm of -23.3 mV [21].
  • In the anesthetized rat Crus I and II of the cerebellar cortex were stained with Neutral Red. Epi-fluorescent changes produced by a train of stimuli (5-10s and 4-20 Hz) to the ipsilateral face were monitored in time using a fast, high resolution charge-coupled device camera [22].
  • Neutral red is useful, however, for visualizing the segmentation of ventral photoreceptors in vivo [23].
  • Neutral red response as a measure of the pH gradient across chloroplast membranes in the light [24].

Associations of Toluylene Red with other chemical compounds

  • By combining both NR and DTZ staining in vitro, selective fluorescence of islets was obtained that was sufficient to allow efficient sorting [20].
  • Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the Neutral Red uptake assay and a concentration that reduced cell viability to 50% of control was selected as a maximum concentration for subsequent measurement of PGE2 release [25].
  • We observe that the two redox dyes Safranine O and Neutral Red covalently bound to HRP, efficiently mediate electron transfer from the active site of the enzyme to the electrode surface [26].
  • The present study reports the photodynamic effect of Methylene Blue (MB) and Nuclear Fast Red (NFR) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the destruction of the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) under irradiation with visible light [27].
  • Close regional correlation between NR staining and the iodoantipyrine intensity of adjacent brain slices suggests that NR distribution is a qualitative indicator of brain perfusion [28].

Gene context of Toluylene Red


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toluylene Red

  • Neutral red dye uptake and electron microscopy were used in the investigation of the respective roles of, and of the reciprocal interaction between, toxin and ammonia in cell vacuolation and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry was used for the identification of the intracellular sites of internalized toxin [33].
  • The pH sensitive dye, Neutral Red, was used with optical imaging techniques to map intracellular pH shifts elicited by cortical surface stimulation of the rat cerebellum [34].
  • We investigated the cytotoxic effect of APD by combining two spectrophotometric assays [neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release] with a morphological assay (electron microscopy) [35].
  • The methods used to analyze COM and DBP effects were scanning electron microscopy immunocytochemistry, manual cell count, and cyto-compatibility assay (Neutral red and MTT tests) [36].
  • Exposure of superhelical pBR322 DNA to the complexes or the dyes for 24 h followed by agarose gel electrophoresis showed that Neutral Red and Pt(Neutral Red)2 had little effect on DNA conformation, but that both Nile Blue and Pt(Nile Blue)2 could produce single-strand DNA breaks in a dose-dependent fashion [37].


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  2. Neutral red staining of cells of a sulfolipid-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis pks2 mutant proves that sulfolipids are not responsible for this cytochemical reaction. Andreu, N., Gibert, I., Luquin, M., Kolattukudy, P.E., Sirakova, T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Calibration and time resolution of lumenal pH-transients in chromatophores of Rhodobacter capsulatus following a single turnover flash of light: proton release by the cytochrome bc1-complex is strongly electrogenic. Mulkidjanian, A.Y., Junge, W. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Aminergic neurons in the anterior nervous system of the rat acanthocephalan Moniliformis dubius. Budziakowski, M.E., Mettrick, D.F., Webb, R.A. J. Neurobiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using neutral red as an electronophore. Park, D.H., Zeikus, J.G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Three-dimensional scroll waves organize Dictyostelium slugs. Siegert, F., Weijer, C.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuroprotection by complement (C1) inhibitor in mouse transient brain ischemia. De Simoni, M.G., Storini, C., Barba, M., Catapano, L., Arabia, A.M., Rossi, E., Bergamaschini, L. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Characteristics of 5-HT-containing chemoreceptor cells of the chicken aortic body. Ito, S., Ohta, T., Nakazato, Y. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Shiga toxin 1 elicits diverse biologic responses in mesangial cells. Simon, M., Cleary, T.G., Hernandez, J.D., Abboud, H.E. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. DNA interaction and cytostatic activity of the new liver organotropic complex of cisplatin with glycocholic acid: Bamet-R2. Marin, J.J., Macias, R.I., Criado, J.J., Bueno, A., Monte, M.J., Serrano, M.A. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxidative stress in fish cells: in vitro studies. Babich, H., Palace, M.R., Stern, A. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Neutral-red reaction is related to virulence and cell wall methyl-branched lipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cardona, P.J., Soto, C.Y., Martín, C., Giquel, B., Agustí, G., Guirado, E., Sirakova, T., Kolattukudy, P., Julián, E., Luquin, M. Microbes Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Monoisopropylglutathione ester protects A549 cells from the cytotoxic effects of sulphur mustard. Lindsay, C.D., Hambrook, J.L., Lailey, A.F. Human & experimental toxicology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of toxicity indicators in rat primary astrocytes, C6 glioma and human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells: can gliotoxicity be distinguished from cytotoxicity? Mead, C., Pentreath, V.W. Arch. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Irritancy testing in cultured keratinocytes. Gajjar, L., Benford, D.J. Molecular toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Apoptotic death in cerebral hemisphere cells is density dependent and modulated by transient oxygen and glucose deprivation. Yavin, E., Billia, D.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis and hydrogen peroxide-induced necrosis in two human breast cell lines. McKeague, A.L., Wilson, D.J., Nelson, J. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential c-myc expression profiles in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following treatment with benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene-4,5 epoxide, and benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-9,10 diol epoxide. Fields, W.R., Desiderio, J.G., Leonard, R.M., Burger, E.E., Brown, B.G., Doolittle, D.J. Mol. Carcinog. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The use of neutral red as an intracellular pH indicator in rat brain cortex in vivo. LaManna, J.C., McCracken, K.A. Anal. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro staining of islets of Langerhans for fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Jiao, L., Gray, D.W., Göhde, W., Flynn, G.J., Morris, P.J. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Enterocyte-lymphocyte interactions in the follicle-associated epithelium of the mouse Peyer's patch. Cremaschi, D., James, P.S., Rossetti, C., Smith, M.W. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of climbing fibers in determining the spatial patterns of activation in the cerebellar cortex to peripheral stimulation: an optical imaging study. Hanson, C.L., Chen, G., Ebner, T.J. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Subcellular localization of neutral red staining in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Chamberlain, S.C., Battelle, B.A., Calman, B.G. J. Neurobiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Neutral red response as a measure of the pH gradient across chloroplast membranes in the light. Pick, U., Avron, M. FEBS Lett. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of tumour promoter-induced prostaglandin E2 release in human and rat keratinocytes. Lawrence, J.N., Benford, D.J. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Electrochemical studies on horseradish peroxidase covalently coupled with redox dyes. Salomi, B.S., Mitra, C.K. Biosensors & bioelectronics (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Photosensitized destruction of Chlorella vulgaris by Methylene Blue or Nuclear Fast Red combined with hydrogen peroxide under visible light irradiation. McCullagh, C., Robertson, P.K. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Visually defined zones of focal ischemia in the rat brain. Selman, W.R., VanDerVeer, C., Whittingham, T.S., LaManna, J.C., Lust, W.D., Ratcheson, R.A. Neurosurgery (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Photochemically induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat: time dependent and global increase in expression of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA. Lippoldt, A., Andbjer, B., Rosén, L., Richter, E., Ganten, D., Cao, Y., Pettersson, R.F., Fuxe, K. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Evaluation of seven in vitro alternatives for ocular safety testing. Bruner, L.H., Kain, D.J., Roberts, D.A., Parker, R.D. Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Cellular localization of angiotensin type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen mRNAs in the subfornical organ of the rat brain. Lippoldt, A., Bunnemann, B., Iwai, N., Metzger, R., Inagami, T., Fuxe, K., Ganten, D. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Influence of blood and synovial fluid immune complexes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis on production of nitric oxide and growth and viability of chondrocytes. Verbruggen, A., De Clerck, L.S., Bridts, C.H., Breedveld, F.C., Stevens, W.J. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin accumulates within the endosomal-vacuolar compartment of cultured gastric cells and potentiates the vacuolating activity of ammonia. Ricci, V., Sommi, P., Fiocca, R., Romano, M., Solcia, E., Ventura, U. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Optical responses evoked by cerebellar surface stimulation in vivo using neutral red. Chen, G., Hanson, C.L., Ebner, T.J. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Cytotoxic effects of pamidronate on monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and its epithelial transport. Twiss, I.M., de Water, R., den Hartigh, J., Sparidans, R., Ramp-Koopmanschap, W., Brill, H., Wijdeveld, M., Vermeij, P. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Cytocompatibility study of organic matrix extracted from Caribbean coral porites astroides. Fricain, J.C., Alouf, J., Bareille, R., Rouais, F., Rouvillain, J.L. Biomaterials (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. DNA interaction, cytotoxicity, and radiosensitization with PtCl4(Nile Blue)2 and PtCl4(Neutral Red)2. Teicher, B.A., Herman, T.S., Kaufmann, M.E. Radiat. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
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