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Gene Review

IL11  -  interleukin 11

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AGIF, Adipogenesis inhibitory factor, IL-11, Interleukin-11
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Disease relevance of IL11


Psychiatry related information on IL11

  • The effect of administering recombinant human interleukin 11 in conjunction with cytotoxic insults to the gastrointestinal tract has been studied using the crypt microcolony assay for stem cell function and whole-animal survival time studies [5].

High impact information on IL11

  • The production of interleukin-6 by stromal osteoblastic cells, as well as the responsiveness of bone marrow cells to cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-11, is regulated by sex steroids [6].
  • The development of osteoclasts from their progenitors is dependent on stromal-osteoblastic cells, which are a major source of cytokines that are critical in osteoclastogenesis, such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-11 [6].
  • Expression of RANKL mRNA in osteoblasts/stromal cells is up-regulated by osteotropic factors such as 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3, PTH, and IL-11 [7].
  • The role of gp130-mediated signals in osteoclast development: regulation of interleukin 11 production by osteoblasts and distribution of its receptor in bone marrow cultures [8].
  • It belongs to a family of distantly related cytokines that includes interleukin 6, ciliary neurotrophic factor, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and interleukin 11 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL11


Biological context of IL11


Anatomical context of IL11


Associations of IL11 with chemical compounds

  • The combination of IL-11 and dexamethasone yielded a magnitude of stimulation which was more similar to the combination of LIF and dexamethasone than IL-6 and dexamethasone [17].
  • We also determined whether retinoic acid (RA) altered this IL-11 production [10].
  • Compared with the control group, the quantitative level of L. monocytogenes in hepatic and splenic tissue was unchanged by rhIL-11 but was significantly increased by TNF or IL-11 inhibition [18].
  • However, we were unable to show that JAK1 is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated by IL-11 under identical conditions [19].
  • IL-11 acts on cells expressing gp130 and the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) alpha-subunit (IL-11Ralpha) [20].

Physical interactions of IL11


Regulatory relationships of IL11

  • We have previously shown that IL-10 could induce IL-11 receptor in myeloma cells and confer on them sensitivity to IL-11 (Lu et al, FEBS Lett 377:515, 1995) [23].
  • Detailed analysis with several patient samples further revealed that SF and IL-11 both enhance IL-3-supported clonogenic growth of AML blasts and the combination of all three growth factors yields optimal growth [3].
  • It did, however, inhibit rIL-1-stimulated and synergistically augment TGF-beta-stimulated IL-11 production [10].
  • We further show that the in vitro kinase activity of JAK2 is greatly enhanced following stimulation with IL-11 in 3T3-L1 cells and TF-1 cells [19].
  • Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists inhibit interleukin-11 biological activity [24].
  • IL11 has antisense Alu elements in its 3'UTR region, making it susceptible to the regulation of other protein-coding RNAs with sense Alu elements, and Pol-III transcribed Alus [25].

Other interactions of IL11

  • In contrast, IL-6 does not further enhance the effect of IL-11 [3].
  • Within the hematopoietic system, the effects of IL-11 are largely manifest only through combination with other cytokines, including IL-3 and Steel factor (SF) [3].
  • Thus, IL-1, TGF-beta, and RSV stimulate epithelial-like cell IL-11 production, and RA regulates these inductive processes in a stimulus-specific fashion [10].
  • Similarly, we also characterized two additional antibodies B-P8 and B-P4, which inhibited the TF1 cell proliferation observed in the presence of CNTF and IL-11, respectively [26].
  • Here we identify a 130-kilodalton tyrosine-phosphorylated protein induced by IL-11 in 3T3-L1 cells as JAK2 tyrosine kinase [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL11


  1. A polymorphism in the IL11 gene is associated with ulcerative colitis. Klein, W., Tromm, A., Griga, T., Fricke, H., Folwaczny, C., Hocke, M., Eitner, K., Marx, M., Duerig, N., Epplen, J.T. Genes Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Administration of recombinant human IL11 after supralethal radiation exposure promotes survival in mice: interactive effect with thrombopoietin. Van der Meeren, A., Mouthon, M.A., Gaugler, M.H., Vandamme, M., Gourmelon, P. Radiat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of interleukin-11 on the proliferation and cell cycle status of myeloid leukemic cells. Hu, J.P., Cesano, A., Santoli, D., Clark, S.C., Hoang, T. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning of two isoforms of a receptor for the human hematopoietic cytokine interleukin-11. Chérel, M., Sorel, M., Lebeau, B., Dubois, S., Moreau, J.F., Bataille, R., Minvielle, S., Jacques, Y. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Protection of the small intestinal clonogenic stem cells from radiation-induced damage by pretreatment with interleukin 11 also increases murine survival time. Potten, C.S. Stem Cells (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. Emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Manolagas, S.C., Jilka, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of osteoclast differentiation and function by the new members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor and ligand families. Suda, T., Takahashi, N., Udagawa, N., Jimi, E., Gillespie, M.T., Martin, T.J. Endocr. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of gp130-mediated signals in osteoclast development: regulation of interleukin 11 production by osteoblasts and distribution of its receptor in bone marrow cultures. Romas, E., Udagawa, N., Zhou, H., Tamura, T., Saito, M., Taga, T., Hilton, D.J., Suda, T., Ng, K.W., Martin, T.J. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Oncostatin M induces association of Grb2 with Janus kinase JAK2 in multiple myeloma cells. Chauhan, D., Kharbanda, S.M., Ogata, A., Urashima, M., Frank, D., Malik, N., Kufe, D.W., Anderson, K.C. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Epithelial interleukin-11. Regulation by cytokines, respiratory syncytial virus, and retinoic acid. Elias, J.A., Zheng, T., Einarsson, O., Landry, M., Trow, T., Rebert, N., Panuska, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of azacytidine in the release of leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin m, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-11 by mononuclear cells of patients with refractory anemia. López-Karpovitch, X., Barrales-Benítez, O., Flores, M., Piedras, J. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 11, and leukemia inhibitory factor produced by Langerhans cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Andersson By, U., Tani, E., Andersson, U., Henter, J.I. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Synergistic effects of interleukin-11 with other growth factors on the expansion of hematopoietic progenitors from normal individuals and chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant to treatment with cytosine arabinoside or eilatin. Einat, M., Nagler, A., Amiel, A., Fejgin, M.D., Rudi, A., Kashman, Y., Fabian, I. Leuk. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Genomic sequence and chromosomal location of human interleukin-11 gene (IL11). McKinley, D., Wu, Q., Yang-Feng, T., Yang, Y.C. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Ciliary neurotropic factor, interleukin 11, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M are growth factors for human myeloma cell lines using the interleukin 6 signal transducer gp130. Zhang, X.G., Gu, J.J., Lu, Z.Y., Yasukawa, K., Yancopoulos, G.D., Turner, K., Shoyab, M., Taga, T., Kishimoto, T., Bataille, R. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Secretion of a unique peptide from interleukin-2-stimulated natural killer cells that induces endomitosis in immature human megakaryocytes. Angchaisuksiri, P., Grigus, S.R., Carlson, P.L., Krystal, G.W., Dessypris, E.N. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Interleukin-11 regulates the hepatic expression of the same plasma protein genes as interleukin-6. Baumann, H., Schendel, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Recombinant human interleukin-11 has anti-inflammatory actions yet does not exacerbate systemic Listeria infection. Opal, S.M., Keith, J.C., Palardy, J.E., Parejo, N. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of a 130-kilodalton tyrosine-phosphorylated protein induced by interleukin-11 as JAK2 tyrosine kinase, which associates with gp130 signal transducer. Yin, T., Yasukawa, K., Taga, T., Kishimoto, T., Yang, Y.C. Exp. Hematol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Definition of receptor binding sites on human interleukin-11 by molecular modeling-guided mutagenesis. Tacken, I., Dahmen, H., Boisteau, O., Minvielle, S., Jacques, Y., Grötzinger, J., Küster, A., Horsten, U., Blanc, C., Montero-Julian, F.A., Heinrich, P.C., Müller-Newen, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Functional expression of soluble human interleukin-11 (IL-11) receptor alpha and stoichiometry of in vitro IL-11 receptor complexes with gp130. Neddermann, P., Graziani, R., Ciliberto, G., Paonessa, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Involvement of gp130/interleukin-6 receptor transducing component in interleukin-11 receptor. Fourcin, M., Chevalier, S., Lebrun, J.J., Kelly, P., Pouplard, A., Wijdenes, J., Gascan, H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Interleukin-10 is a growth factor for human myeloma cells by induction of an oncostatin M autocrine loop. Gu, Z.J., Costes, V., Lu, Z.Y., Zhang, X.G., Pitard, V., Moreau, J.F., Bataille, R., Wijdenes, J., Rossi, J.F., Klein, B. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists inhibit interleukin-11 biological activity. Sun, R.X., Gennaro, C., Rocco, S., Gu, Z.J., Klein, B. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. A gene expression restriction network mediated by sense and antisense Alu sequences located on protein-coding messenger RNAs. Liang, K.H., Yeh, C.T. BMC. Genomics. (2013) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin-6 family of cytokines induced activation of different functional sites expressed by gp130 transducing protein. Chevalier, S., Fourcin, M., Robledo, O., Wijdenes, J., Pouplard-Barthelaix, A., Gascan, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of interleukin-11 protein and mRNA expression in neonatal and adult fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Suen, Y., Chang, M., Lee, S.M., Buzby, J.S., Cairo, M.S. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
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