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Gene Review

Il11  -  interleukin 11

Mus musculus

Synonyms: IL-11, Interleukin-11
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Disease relevance of Il11


High impact information on Il11


Chemical compound and disease context of Il11


Biological context of Il11

  • The possible contribution by some factor, such as Il4 or Il11, that has been reported to protect irradiated animals without stimulating hematopoiesis is discussed [13].
  • Therefore, diminished AP-1 activity and the resultant decline in IL-11 expression may play a role in impaired bone formation in the aged [14].
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that two tandem activating protein-1 (AP-1) sites that reside immediately upstream of TATA box play critical roles in IL-11 gene transcription [14].
  • Two differentially expressed interleukin-11 receptor genes in the mouse genome [15].
  • Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types and tissues in vitro and in vivo [15].

Anatomical context of Il11


Associations of Il11 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Il11

  • Furthermore, decreased Jun D binding and IL-11 expression by stromal cells was also observed in aged mice of the ICR strain [14].

Regulatory relationships of Il11

  • Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor [17].
  • IL-11R beta expressed in vitro binds IL-11 with high affinity, suggesting that the mouse genome contains a second functional IL-11R [15].
  • In this study, it has been investigated whether IL-11 influences the hematopoietic action of G-CSF in vitro [1].
  • IL-11 induces hsp25 in an intestinal epithelial-specific manner that significantly preserves cellular viability in the presence of monochloramine [3].
  • Interestingly, IL-11 stimulated mPGC growth comparable to LIF and OSM, but did not affect cPGC survival [21].

Other interactions of Il11

  • In serum-containing cultures, SF and IL-11 interacted to support the formation of multilineage colonies; the level of colony formation was comparable with the colony formation supported by other effective two-factor combinations [22].
  • Here we show that the mouse genome contains a second gene encoding an IL-11-binding protein, referred to as IL-11R beta [15].
  • The addition of IFN-gamma to the culture containing SCF plus IL-11 resulted in a decrease of the expansion efficiency [23].
  • Enhancement of murine hematopoiesis by synergistic interactions between steel factor (ligand for c-kit), interleukin-11, and other early acting factors in culture [22].
  • In contrast, only mRNA for the IL-11 receptor and gp130 were detected in BMMC [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Il11

  • These studies demonstrate that IL-11 has significant stimulatory effects on G-CSF-induced CFU-GM colony formation, suggesting that the therapeutic combination of the two growth factors could be beneficial for the treatment of myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy [1].
  • Combined IL-3 plus IL-11 therapy may be clinically useful in myelodepression, especially in platelet depletion related to radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or after bone marrow transplantation [25].
  • In a second group of mice irradiated with 7 Gy, we observed significantly higher platelet, white blood cell (WBC), and red blood cell (RBC) counts after treatment with both cytokines, as compared to IL-3 or IL-11 alone or untreated controls [25].
  • Therefore, as a first step in tackling this problem, we have investigated whether several recently described pro- (IL-12, IL-15) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, IL-13) cytokines were expressed at the uteroplacental interface by use of immunohistochemistry at different stages of gestation in mice [26].
  • We report here that IL-11, a newly discovered cytokine that is produced by marrow stromal cells, induced the formation of osteoclasts exhibiting an unusually high degree of ploidy in cocultures of murine bone marrow and calvarial cells [5].


  1. Effects of interleukin-11 on the hematopoietic action of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Momose, K., Taguchi, K., Saitoh, M., Yasuda, S., Miyata, K. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Infertility in female mice lacking the receptor for interleukin 11 is due to a defective uterine response to implantation. Robb, L., Li, R., Hartley, L., Nandurkar, H.H., Koentgen, F., Begley, C.G. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Interleukin-11-induced heat shock protein 25 confers intestinal epithelial-specific cytoprotection from oxidant stress. Ropeleski, M.J., Tang, J., Walsh-Reitz, M.M., Musch, M.W., Chang, E.B. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. Lessons from interleukin 11 and interleukin 13 transgenic mice. Zhu, Z., Lee, C.G., Zheng, T., Chupp, G., Wang, J., Homer, R.J., Noble, P.W., Hamid, Q., Elias, J.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Interleukin-11: a new cytokine critical for osteoclast development. Girasole, G., Passeri, G., Jilka, R.L., Manolagas, S.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Maternal IL-11Ralpha function is required for normal decidua and fetoplacental development in mice. Bilinski, P., Roopenian, D., Gossler, A. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Marrow stem cells shift gene expression and engraftment phenotype with cell cycle transit. Lambert, J.F., Liu, M., Colvin, G.A., Dooner, M., McAuliffe, C.I., Becker, P.S., Forget, B.G., Weissman, S.M., Quesenberry, P.J. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin-18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor) is produced by osteoblasts and acts via granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and not via interferon-gamma to inhibit osteoclast formation. Udagawa, N., Horwood, N.J., Elliott, J., Mackay, A., Owens, J., Okamura, H., Kurimoto, M., Chambers, T.J., Martin, T.J., Gillespie, M.T. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The FLT3 ligand potently and directly stimulates the growth and expansion of primitive murine bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro: synergistic interactions with interleukin (IL) 11, IL-12, and other hematopoietic growth factors. Jacobsen, S.E., Okkenhaug, C., Myklebust, J., Veiby, O.P., Lyman, S.D. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Targeted lung expression of interleukin-11 enhances murine tolerance of 100% oxygen and diminishes hyperoxia-induced DNA fragmentation. Waxman, A.B., Einarsson, O., Seres, T., Knickelbein, R.G., Warshaw, J.B., Johnston, R., Homer, R.J., Elias, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Contribution of interleukin-11 and prostaglandin(s) in lipopolysaccharide-induced bone resorption in vivo. Li, L., Khansari, A., Shapira, L., Graves, D.T., Amar, S. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Interleukin-11 attenuates pulmonary inflammation and vasomotor dysfunction in endotoxin-induced lung injury. Sheridan, B.C., Dinarello, C.A., Meldrum, D.R., Fullerton, D.A., Selzman, C.H., McIntyre, R.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Increase in endogenous spleen colonies without recovery of blood cell counts in radioadaptive survival response in C57BL/6 mice. Yonezawa, M., Horie, K., Kondo, H., Kubo, K. Radiat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Decreased AP-1 activity and interleukin-11 expression by bone marrow stromal cells may be associated with impaired bone formation in aged mice. Tohjima, E., Inoue, D., Yamamoto, N., Kido, S., Ito, Y., Kato, S., Takeuchi, Y., Fukumoto, S., Matsumoto, T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Two differentially expressed interleukin-11 receptor genes in the mouse genome. Bilinski, P., Hall, M.A., Neuhaus, H., Gissel, C., Heath, J.K., Gossler, A. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Enhancement of murine blast cell colony formation in culture by recombinant rat stem cell factor, ligand for c-kit. Tsuji, K., Zsebo, K.M., Ogawa, M. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor. Ploemacher, R.E., van Soest, P.L., Boudewijn, A., Neben, S. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct and synergistic effects of interleukin 11 on murine hemopoiesis in culture. Musashi, M., Yang, Y.C., Paul, S.R., Clark, S.C., Sudo, T., Ogawa, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Syp associates with gp130 and Janus kinase 2 in response to interleukin-11 in 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes. Fuhrer, D.K., Feng, G.S., Yang, Y.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Cycle initiation and colony formation in culture by murine marrow cells with long-term reconstituting potential in vivo. Trevisan, M., Yan, X.Q., Iscove, N.N. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Functional requirement of gp130-mediated signaling for growth and survival of mouse primordial germ cells in vitro and derivation of embryonic germ (EG) cells. Koshimizu, U., Taga, T., Watanabe, M., Saito, M., Shirayoshi, Y., Kishimoto, T., Nakatsuji, N. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Enhancement of murine hematopoiesis by synergistic interactions between steel factor (ligand for c-kit), interleukin-11, and other early acting factors in culture. Tsuji, K., Lyman, S.D., Sudo, T., Clark, S.C., Ogawa, M. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Synergistic effects of stem cell factor and interleukin 6 or interleukin 11 on the expansion of murine hematopoietic progenitors in liquid suspension culture. Ariyama, Y., Misawa, S., Sonoda, Y. Stem Cells (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. The IL-6 family cytokines, interleukin-6, interleukin-11, oncostatin M, and leukemia inhibitory factor, enhance mast cell growth through fibroblast-dependent pathway in mice. Gyotoku, E., Morita, E., Kameyoshi, Y., Hiragun, T., Yamamoto, S., Hide, M. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Combined effects of interleukin-3 and interleukin-11 on hematopoiesis in irradiated mice. Galmiche, M.C., Vogel, C.A., Delaloye, A.B., Schmidt, P.M., Healy, F., Mach, J.P., Buchegger, F. Exp. Hematol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Localization of pro-inflammatory (IL-12, IL-15) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, IL-13) cytokines at the foetomaternal interface during murine pregnancy. Zourbas, S., Dubanchet, S., Martal, J., Chaouat, G. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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