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Gene Review

HOXB3  -  homeobox B3

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: 2.7, CHOX, HOXB-3
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Disease relevance of HOXB3

  • FGAM synthetase activity was also increased in human renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular and colon carcinomas to 1.4-, 2.7-, and 3.8-fold of the activity of the respective homologous normal and host tissues [1].
  • The number of neurotensin-immunoreactive cell bodies was high in the myenteric plexus of the gizzard (28.3 +/- 2.7/ganglion) but low in the plexuses of the esophagus, crop and proventriculus [2].
  • Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml [3].
  • Relative to controls, TCDD increased heart wet weight (27.2 +/- 0.5 versus 36.6 +/- 1.3 mg, p < 0.001) and dry weight (2.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.1 +/- 0.1 mg, p < 0.01), and tended to increase heart myosin content (3.5 +/- 0.6 versus 6.3 +/- 2.5 microg, p < 0.07), suggesting an increase in cardiac muscle mass and edema [4].
  • Respiratory tract rinses from carcasses with the trachea occluded prior to scalding had the lowest number of bacteria at 1.9 E. coli, 2.3 coliforms, and 2.7 total aerobes [5].

High impact information on HOXB3

  • In contrast, the vitamin A-treated cultures were 2.7 fold more effective in binding fibronectin synthesized by either control or treated cells [6].
  • The apparent dissociation constants (Kds) at half-saturation of the actin binding sites were 0.4 microM at 22 degrees C and 1.2 microM at 37 degrees C for chicken gizzard, and 2.7 microM at 22 degrees C for both Acanthamoeba and Dictyostelium alpha-actinin [7].
  • We determined ED50 values for the agonists acetylcholine and carbachol as 3.4 X 10(-6) and 2.7 X 10(-5) M, respectively [8].
  • The human ets-1 locus on chromosome 11 encodes a single mRNA of 6.8 kb; the second locus, ets-2 on chromosome 21, encodes three mRNAs of 4.7, 3.2, and 2.7 kb [9].
  • It became larger and more sustained if intermittent action potentials were allowed during exposure or if the aggregates were pretreated with either 10 mM Ca2+ or 2.7 microM acetylstrophanthidin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of HOXB3


Biological context of HOXB3

  • The results suggest that the Hox code, at least in the development of homologous axial structures, is conserved between species (Hoxb-3 and a-4, for example, being associated with an anterior cervical phenotype; Hoxc-6 being associated with an anterior thoracic phenotype) [13].
  • Two different types of cis-regulatory regions were identified: one was a silencerlike region located between 3.7 and 2.7 kilobases upstream of the mRNA initiation site, and the other was essential for the expression of L23 in skeletal muscle cells and was located between 106 and 91 base pairs upstream of the cap site [14].
  • Both KRP and MLCK are produced in the same adult chicken tissue in relatively high abundance from a single contiguous stretch of genomic DNA and utilize the same reading frame and common exons to produce distinct mRNAs (2.7 and 5.5 kb, respectively) that encode proteins with dissimilar biochemical functions [15].
  • Sequencing high-copy DNA of chicken to about 2.7 x coverage of its estimated sequence complexity led to the initial identification of several new repeat families, which were then used for a survey of the newly released first draft of the complete chicken genome [16].
  • Anti-GRO-alpha antibody completely inhibited the 2.7-fold thrombin-induced up-regulation of angiogenesis, as well as the 1.5-fold thrombin-induced up-regulation of both endothelial cell cord formation in Matrigel and growth in vitro [17].

Anatomical context of HOXB3

  • The expression domains in paraxial mesoderm of the chicken embryo are described for Hoxb-3, a-4 and c-6 genes, and these are compared with published expression data for the corresponding genes in the mouse [13].
  • In the presence of 2.7 M glycerol and 1 mM ATP, 30 nmol of adenosine 5'-phosphoroglycerol were formed in 10 min per mg of rat liver plasma membranes [18].
  • The smooth muscle protocol yields 2.7 mg of greater than 99% pure alpha-actinin/100 g of ground gizzard after just 5 days [19].
  • Expression of the lysozyme gene in chicken macrophages is regulated by an enhancer located 2.7 kilobases upstream of the transcription start site [20].
  • The 12- to 16-fold increase of the 2.7 kb mRNA in response to T is the largest effect reported for this hormone acting on oviduct [21].

Associations of HOXB3 with chemical compounds

  • Differences in maximal macroscopic current evoked by saturating concentrations of AMPA, kainate, and quisqualate cannot be explained by differences in mean channel open time as the most efficacious agonist, kainate, has the shortest channel open time (AMPA = 5.9 +/- 0.4 msec, kainate = 2.7 +/- 0.1 msec, quisqualate = 5.0 +/- 0.5 msec) [22].
  • 2.7 and 3.2 M urea, respectively, indicate that investigation of cloned repeating units of spectrin can provide physiologically relevant information on these structures [23].
  • Treatment with phenylglyoxal inactivates the enzyme with concomitant modification of 2.7 mol of arginyl residues/mol of subunit [24].
  • Five passages through low folate (2.7 nM) medium reduced the level of cellular folate to near physiologic levels (0.4-1.0 pmol/10(6) cells) [25].
  • EH2, but not the oxidized enzyme, is inactivated by iodoacetamide with alkylation of 2.7 cysteine residues/subunit [26].

Other interactions of HOXB3

  • Conversely, the 3' HoxB genes (Hoxb1 and Hoxb3-Hoxb5) are sensitive to RA but not FGF treatments at these stages [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HOXB3

  • Three different transcripts of the corresponding single copy gene of 2.7 kb, 2.0 kb, and 1.1 kb were observed on Northern blots [28].
  • A bioassay was used to demonstrate FGF-2 levels in the wing ectoderm were approximately 2.7-fold greater than in the mesoderm [29].
  • In slices of rat brain suprachiasmatic nucleus, perfusion (1 h) with GR196429 at zeitgeber time 10 phase advanced the circadian peak in neuronal activity measured on the following day, with a maximum phase advance of 2.7 +/- 0.3 h at 10 pM and an EC50 of 0.6 pM, results that indicated a melatonin-like action on the phase of the circadian clock [30].
  • Overall, seroprevalence was higher in males (prevalence ratio = 2.7) and in all areas, seroprevalence increased with age [31].
  • The eye-drop vaccination route produced the highest HI titres ranging between 2.7 and 4.4, followed by the drinking water vaccination route with titres ranging between 2.3 and 4 [32].


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  2. Distribution of neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons in the digestive tract of the chicken. Atoji, Y., Hirasawa, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Suzuki, Y. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants. Seymour, C., Kramer, L.D., Peralta, P.H. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator during chick cardiogenesis is consistent with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced heart defects. Walker, M.K., Pollenz, R.S., Smith, S.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Recovery of bacteria from broiler carcass respiratory tracts before and after immersion scalding. Buhr, R.J., Berrang, M.E., Cason, J.A., Bourassa, D.V. Poult. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Enhanced cellular fibronectin accumulation in chondrocytes treated with vitamin A. Hassell, J.R., Pennypacker, J.P., Kleinman, H.K., Pratt, R.M., Yamada, K.M. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Bundling of actin filaments by alpha-actinin depends on its molecular length. Meyer, R.K., Aebi, U. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. The muscarinic receptor of chick embryo cells: correlation between ligand binding and calcium mobilization. Oettling, G., Schmidt, H., Drews, U. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. The ets sequence from the transforming gene of avian erythroblastosis virus, E26, has unique domains on human chromosomes 11 and 21: both loci are transcriptionally active. Watson, D.K., McWilliams-Smith, M.J., Nunn, M.F., Duesberg, P.H., O'Brien, S.J., Papas, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanism by which metabolic inhibitors depolarize cultured cardiac cells. Clusin, W.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. X-ray crystallographic study of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate-type aspartate aminotransferases from Escherichia coli in three forms. Miyahara, I., Hirotsu, K., Hayashi, H., Kagamiyama, H. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Colicinogeny in local isolates of salmonellae and plasmid transfer studies. Elpek, G., Içgen, B., Ozcengiz, G. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Conservation in the Hox code during morphological evolution. Gaunt, S.J. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of the chicken embryonic myosin light-chain (L23) gene: existence of a common regulatory element shared by myosin alkali light-chain genes. Uetsuki, T., Nabeshima, Y., Fujisawa-Sehara, A., Nabeshima, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure and expression of a calcium-binding protein gene contained within a calmodulin-regulated protein kinase gene. Collinge, M., Matrisian, P.E., Zimmer, W.E., Shattuck, R.L., Lukas, T.J., Van Eldik, L.J., Watterson, D.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The repetitive landscape of the chicken genome. Wicker, T., Robertson, J.S., Schulze, S.R., Feltus, F.A., Magrini, V., Morrison, J.A., Mardis, E.R., Wilson, R.K., Peterson, D.G., Paterson, A.H., Ivarie, R. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Growth-regulated oncogene is pivotal in thrombin-induced angiogenesis. Caunt, M., Hu, L., Tang, T., Brooks, P.C., Ibrahim, S., Karpatkin, S. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Formation of adenosine 5'-phosphoroglycerol from ATP and glycerol by rat liver plasma membranes. Ryan, J., Rogers, G.N., Toscano, D.G., Storm, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. New, rapid methods for purifying alpha-actinin from chicken gizzard and chicken pectoral muscle. Langer, B.G., Pepe, F.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of a myeloid-specific enhancer of the chicken lysozyme gene. Major role for an Ets transcription factor-binding site. Ahne, B., Strätling, W.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Hormonal regulation of a chicken oviduct messenger ribonucleic acid that shares a common domain with gizzard myosin light chain kinase. Russo, M.A., Guerriero, V., Means, A.R. Mol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. AMPA, kainate, and quisqualate activate a common receptor-channel complex on embryonic chick motoneurons. Zorumski, C.F., Yang, J. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Site-directed mutagenesis of either the highly conserved Trp-22 or the moderately conserved Trp-95 to a large, hydrophobic residue reduces the thermodynamic stability of a spectrin repeating unit. Pantazatos, D.P., MacDonald, R.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Chemical modification of a functional arginyl residue (Arg 292) of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Identification as the binding site for the distal carboxylate group of the substrate. Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. The influence of extracellular folate concentration on methotrexate uptake by human KB cells. Partial characterization of a membrane-associated methotrexate binding protein. Kane, M.A., Portillo, R.M., Elwood, P.C., Antony, A.C., Kolhouse, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. A sulfhydryl oxidase from chicken egg white. Hoober, K.L., Joneja, B., White, H.B., Thorpe, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Initiating Hox gene expression: in the early chick neural tube differential sensitivity to FGF and RA signaling subdivides the HoxB genes in two distinct groups. Bel-Vialar, S., Itasaki, N., Krumlauf, R. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Developmental accumulation and heterogeneity of myelin basic protein transcripts in the chick visual system. Zopf, D., Sonntag, V., Betz, H., Gundelfinger, E.D. Glia (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Distribution of FGF-2 suggests it has a role in chick limb bud growth. Savage, M.P., Hart, C.E., Riley, B.B., Sasse, J., Olwin, B.B., Fallon, J.F. Dev. Dyn. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. GR196429: a nonindolic agonist at high-affinity melatonin receptors. Beresford, I.J., Browning, C., Starkey, S.J., Brown, J., Foord, S.M., Coughlan, J., North, P.C., Dubocovich, M.L., Hagan, R.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Epidemiologic aspects of a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak in Fort Walton Beach, Florida in 1980. McCaig, L.F., Janowski, H.T., Gunn, R.A., Tsai, T.F. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Different approaches to the vaccination of free ranging village chickens against Newcastle disease in Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. Thekisoe, M.M., Mbati, P.A., Bisschop, S.P. Vet. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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