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Chemical Compound Review

Bis-DEAE-fluorenone     2,7-bis(2- diethylaminoethoxy)fluoren-9- one...

Synonyms: DEAE-F, Tilorone HCl, Tilorone 2HCl, CHEMBL539581, SureCN146373, ...
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Disease relevance of Tilorone hydrochloride


High impact information on Tilorone hydrochloride


Chemical compound and disease context of Tilorone hydrochloride


Biological context of Tilorone hydrochloride

  • Effect of tilorone treatment on intracellular microbial infections in specific-pathogen-free mice [14].
  • These kinetics correlated with the inhibition of in vivo lung colonization after tilorone analogue treatment [15].
  • Thus, aniline hydroxylase activity, which develops very rapidly during the first 2 days postpartum, was depressed markedly by tilorone, ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity was depressed moderately, and benzo[a] pyrene hydroxylase, normally the slowest of the three monooxygenase activities to develop, was induced [16].
  • Treatment of pregnant rats with tilorone on days 17-20 of gestation inhibited normal maternal weight gain and produced overt signs of toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[17]
  • These findings suggest that tilorone hydrochloride has a specific effect on T-lymphocytes that accounts for its effect on cellular immunity, but that its antiviral activity is not primarily mediated by T-lymphocytes [18].

Anatomical context of Tilorone hydrochloride

  • Ultrastructural and histochemical studies of the renal lesion produced by tilorone and one of its analogs revealed striking accumulation of vacuoles and/or acid-phosphatase-positive lemellar bodies retricted to glomeruli, ascending limb of Henle's loop, and distal convoluted tubules [19].
  • The large size and large number of nuclear bodies produced by tilorone should facilitate studies of this poorly understood nuclear organelle [20].
  • Nuclear bodies produced in astrocytes by tilorone [20].
  • Large, eosinophilic, nonglycogenic nuclear inclusions were produced in the central nervous system by the drug tilorone [20].
  • The combination of ALS and a tilorone analog that was capable of depleting lymph node but not spleen, gave a synergistic effect only in lymph node and not in spleen [8].

Associations of Tilorone hydrochloride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Tilorone hydrochloride

  • NK cells mediate increase of phagocytic activity but not of proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-12) production elicited in splenic macrophages by tilorone treatment of mice during acute systemic candidiasis [24].
  • Mice reconstituted with AKR bone marrow were deficient both in interferon production using tilorone and Newcastle disease virus as inducers, and at the level of natural killer cells responding to exogenously administered interferon [25].
  • Tilorone treatment reduced the granulomatous response within the Salmonella-infected liver, suggesting that the drug interferes with the mobilization of the mononuclear defenses within the normal host [26].
  • In passive EAE, the most significant increase occurred only in the lower spinal cord for cathepsins A and C, and fourthly, in monocytic EAE induced by tilorone, there was an exceptionally large, 3-fold increase in cathepsin C in lower cord as compared to a 1.5-2 fold increase for other cathepsins [27].
  • Tilorone (2,7-bis[(diethylamino)ethoxy]fluoren-9-one) can enhance the humoral immune response of mice to SRBC although Tilorone has no effect on functional activity of splenic B cells in the absence of immunogen [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tilorone hydrochloride


  1. Further observations on the inhibition of tumor growth by Corynebacterium parvum with cyclophosphamide. V. Comparison of the effects of tilorone hydrochloride, levamisole, methanol-soluble fraction of Mycobacterium butyricum, BCG, and a nonviable aqueous ether extract of Brucella abortus preparation in treatment of mice with tumors. Fisher, B., Linta, J., Hanlon, J., Saffer, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of deoxynucleotide-polymerizing enzyme activities of human leukemia lymphoblasts and simian sarcoma virus by tilorone and thirteen of its analogs. DiCioccio, R.A., Sahai Srivastava, B.I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Potentiation of antitumor and antimetastatic activities of alpha-difluoromethylornithine by interferon inducers. Sunkara, P.S., Prakash, N.J., Rosenberger, A.L., Hagan, A.C., Lachmann, P.J., Mayer, G.D. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Necrotic myelopathy (myelomalacia) in rats with allergic encephalomyelitis treated with tilorone. Levine, S., Sowinski, R. Am. J. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiviral effects of amino acid derivatives with the fluorene substituent on murine leukemia viruses. Fujita, H., Toyoshima, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Association of macrophage activation with antitumor activity by synthetic and biological agents. Schultz, R.M., Papamatheakis, J.D., Luetzeler, J., Chirigos, M.A. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. H-2Kb antigen expression has no effect on natural killer susceptibility and tumorigenicity of a murine hepatoma. Nishimura, M.I., Stroynowski, I., Hood, L., Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Depletion of lymphoid tissues by tilorone. Ultrastructure and synergistic interaction with antilymphocyte serum. Levine, S., Cacho, P., Sowinski, R., Thelmo, W.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Therapeutic trial of tilorone in ALS: lack of benefit in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Olson, W.H., Simons, J.A., Halaas, G.W. Neurology (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Experimental encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus: comparison of treatment with tilorone hydrochloride and phosphonoacetic acid. Fitzwilliam, J.F., Griffith, J.F. J. Infect. Dis. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Impaired macrophage functions as a possible basis of immunomodification by microbial agents, tilorone and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide. Bloksma, N., de Reuver, M.J., Willers, J.M. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Activated natural killer cells suppress myelopoiesis in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Pisa, P., Sitnicka, E., Hansson, M. Scand. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of glucose transport of Ehrlich ascites tumour cell by interferon inducers. Fung, K.P., Ng, S.W., Ha, D.K., Choy, Y.M. Chemotherapy. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of tilorone treatment on intracellular microbial infections in specific-pathogen-free mice. Collins, F.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Generation and control of metastasis in experimental tumor systems; inhibition of experimental metastases by a tilorone analogue. Algarra, I., Pérez, M., Höglund, P., Gaforio, J.J., Ljunggren, H.G., Garrido, F. Int. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of the interferon inducing agents tilorone and polyriboinosinic acid . polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) on the hepatic monooxygenase systems of the developing neonatal rat. Robbins, M.S., Mannering, G.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of the interferon inducing agents tilorone and polyriboinosinic acid . polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) on the hepatic monooxygenase systems of pregnant and fetal rats. Robbins, M.S., Mannering, G.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of tilorone hydrochloride on the lymphoid and interferon responses of athymic mice. Gibson, J.P., Megel, H., Camyre, K.P., Michael, J.G. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Renal lesions induced induced by tilorone and an analog. Ultrastructure and acid phosphatase study. Thelmo, W.L., Levine, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Nuclear bodies produced in astrocytes by tilorone. Levine, S., Sowinski, R., Hoenig, E.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular cloning of a cDNA coding for mouse liver xanthine dehydrogenase. Regulation of its transcript by interferons in vivo. Terao, M., Cazzaniga, G., Ghezzi, P., Bianchi, M., Falciani, F., Perani, P., Garattini, E. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytokine induction in mice by the immunomodulator imiquimod. Reiter, M.J., Testerman, T.L., Miller, R.L., Weeks, C.E., Tomai, M.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Anticancer potential of Viva-Natural, a dietary seaweed extract, on Lewis lung carcinoma in comparison with chemical immunomodulators and on cyclosporine-accelerated AKR leukemia. Furusawa, E., Furusawa, S. Oncology (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. NK cells mediate increase of phagocytic activity but not of proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-12) production elicited in splenic macrophages by tilorone treatment of mice during acute systemic candidiasis. Gaforio, J.J., Ortega, E., Algarra, I., Serrano, M.J., Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Variation of interferon induction at the bone marrow level. Studies on interferon induction in relation to natural cell-mediated cytotoxic mechanisms. Orn, A., Gidlund, M., Wigzell, H., Gresser, I. Eur. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanism of cellular suppression induced by oral tilorone treatment of mice. Collins, F.M. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Proteolytic enzymes in ordinary, hyperacute, monocytic and passive transfer forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Marks, N., Grynbaum, A., Levine, S. Brain Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Modulation of the acquisition and expression of immunity by Tilorone: II. Humoral responsiveness. Kettman, J.R. Immunopharmacology (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Skin and heart allograft prolongation in tilorone-treated rats. Wildstein, A., Stevens, L.E., Hashim, G. Transplantation (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Drug-induced glycosaminoglycan storage: dose-dependent changes in the pattern of accumulated glycosaminoglycans in cultured bovine and human fibroblasts. Fischer, J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Endotoxin toxicity in rats is enhanced by tilorone. Levine, S., Sowinski, R. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Restoration of diminished splenic responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A in adjuvant-induced disease by virazole: possible pathogenetic role of a virus and suppressor cells. Kapusta, M.H., Young-Rodenchuk, M., Kourounakis, L. J. Rheumatol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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