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Gene Review

CHDH  -  choline dehydrogenase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CDH, CHD, Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
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Disease relevance of CHDH

  • PURPOSE We previously identified three genes, HOXB13, IL17BR and CHDH, and the HOXB13:IL17BR ratio index in particular, that strongly predicted clinical outcome in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen monotherapy [1].
  • Drug treatment for mild to moderate hypertension substantially reduced morbidity and mortality from stroke and from CHD [2].
  • CONTEXT: A "missed" case of congenital hip dislocation (CDH) can be a disaster for the patient and the outcome may be poor [3].
  • For participants without evidence of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline, the presence of subclinical disease compared with no subclinical disease was associated with a significant increased risk of incident total coronary heart disease including CHD deaths and nonfatal MI and angina pectoris for both men and women [4].
  • Higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and obesity all contribute to the high level of CHD in African-Americans [5].

Psychiatry related information on CHDH

  • If this simple algorithm is proven accurate, a 30% high-density lipoprotein-C increase and a 40% low-density lipoprotein-C reduction would result in a nearly 70% CHD risk reduction - and a revolution in cardiovascular prevention [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In Swiss Type 2 diabetic patients moderate alcohol consumption of 16 to 30 g per day was associated with reduced mortality from CHD and from all causes [7].
  • Depressive symptoms and lack of social integration in relation to prognosis of CHD in middle-aged women. The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study [8].
  • The P. sordida CDH-based lactose biosensor, proved to be the better one, has a detection limit for lactose of 1 microM, a sensitivity of 1100 microA x mM(-1) x cm(-2), a response time of 4 s (the time required to obtain the maximum peak current), and a linear range from 1 to 100 microM lactose (correlation coefficient 0.998) [9].
  • Symposium on CHD prevention trials: design issues in testing life style intervention [10].

High impact information on CHDH

  • We have analysed the molecular evolution of the gene CHD, which is present on the Z and W sex chromosomes of birds [11].
  • A prospective study of persons older than 70 years provided evidence to contest the association between blood cholesterol level and incidence of CHD or death due to CHD [2].
  • In contrast, evidence from large epidemiological studies is coalescing toward the view that small LDL size is more of a marker of these atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins than an independent predictor of CHD [12].
  • Pravastatin treatment was associated with a significant 24% reduction in CHD mortality and a nonsignificant difference in other vascular deaths (17%) and noncardiovascular deaths (12%) [13].
  • Adipose tissue fatty acids and CHD [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of CHDH


Biological context of CHDH

  • These data indicate that tumor cells of NLPHD uniformly display a GC B-cell phenotype, whereas the phenotype of tumor cells of CHD appears to be modulated by the surrounding cellular background, particularly CD40L+ reactive T cells [20].
  • While the impact of epidemic obesity on the health of white Americans is becoming more fully understood, there are important gaps in the knowledge about the nature of influence of adiposity on CHD in large subgroups of the population [16].
  • Finally, possible reasons to explain the increased incidence of CHD associated with proteinuria in IDDM patients, including lipoprotein abnormalities, increased fibrinogen levels, increased platelet adhesiveness, and altered hemostatic variables, are discussed [21].
  • RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, Si (HR:0.80, CI:0.65-0.97) adjusted for serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, BMI and smoking predicted CHD [22].
  • RESULTS: Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), triglyceride levels, systolic blood pressure, waist and waist-to-hip ratio were positively and linearly associated with CHD risk; HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with risk [23].

Anatomical context of CHDH


Associations of CHDH with chemical compounds

  • The flavin cofactor from H. insolens was found to be a mixture of 60% 6-hydroxy-FAD and 40% FAD, whereas that from P. chrysosporium CDH was normal FAD [29].
  • The magnitude of the association between folate and CHD is consistent with its effects on homocysteine [30].
  • The relatively low cardiovascular risk population from FIELD and the 'pollution' by statin therapy may not totally explain the weak results of fenofibrate in the reduction in CHD events [17].
  • Quantitative analysis for tissue catecholamines showed that dopamine was present in greatest concentration in each group of patients but was significantly elevated in CHD [24].
  • The prevalence and incidence of CHD, defined by ECG abnormalities according to the Tecumseh criteria for Minnesota Codes, were determined in Pima Indians greater than or equal to 25 yr of age [31].

Other interactions of CHDH


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHDH

  • False positives on diagnostic tests for CHD [34].
  • There are, as yet, no longitudinal studies that control for one or more of these CHD risk factor variables to determine whether future development of CHD could be prevented or ameliorated [15].
  • Wild type CDH is only the second example of a b-type heme with Met-His ligation, and it is the first example of a Met-His ligation of heme b where the ligands are arranged in a nearly perpendicular orientation [35].
  • CHD risk was estimated using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, and risk reduction from published randomised clinical trials [36].
  • Among the relevant articles there were six cohort studies reporting on the risk of total mortality and/or fatal and/or incident CHD in alcohol non-consumers and in at least two groups of alcohol consumers [37].


  1. The HOXB13:IL17BR Expression Index Is a Prognostic Factor in Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Ma, X.J., Hilsenbeck, S.G., Wang, W., Ding, L., Sgroi, D.C., Bender, R.A., Osborne, C.K., Allred, D.C., Erlander, M.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Geriatric medicine. Gill, T.M., Tinetti, M.E. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Neonatal hip screening. Eastwood, D.M. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Subclinical disease as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Kuller, L.H., Shemanski, L., Psaty, B.M., Borhani, N.O., Gardin, J., Haan, M.N., O'Leary, D.H., Savage, P.J., Tell, G.S., Tracy, R. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Coronary artery disease in African-Americans. Curry, C.L. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Simultaneous low-density lipoprotein-C lowering and high-density lipoprotein-C elevation for optimum cardiovascular disease prevention with various drug classes, and their combinations: a meta-analysis of 23 randomized lipid trials. Brown, B.G., Stukovsky, K.H., Zhao, X.Q. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of alcohol consumption on mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diem, P., Deplazes, M., Fajfr, R., Bearth, A., Müller, B., Christ, E.R., Teuscher, A. Diabetologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Depressive symptoms and lack of social integration in relation to prognosis of CHD in middle-aged women. The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study. Horsten, M., Mittleman, M.A., Wamala, S.P., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., Orth-Gomér, K. Eur. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Third-generation biosensor for lactose based on newly discovered cellobiose dehydrogenase. Stoica, L., Ludwig, R., Haltrich, D., Gorton, L. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Symposium on CHD prevention trials: design issues in testing life style intervention. Hulley, S.B. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Male-driven evolution of DNA sequences in birds. Ellegren, H., Fridolfsson, A.K. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. The apolipoprotein story. Sacks, F.M. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical relevance of statins: their role in secondary prevention. Tonkin, A.M. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Adipose tissue fatty acids and CHD. Wood, D.A., Riemersma, R.A., Oliver, M.F. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Coronary risk factors in the young. Stein, E.V., Glueck, C.J., Morrison, J.A. Annu. Rev. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Obesity and coronary heart disease. Garrison, R.J., Higgins, M.W., Kannel, W.B. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Fenofibrate therapy and cardiovascular protection in diabetes: recommendations after FIELD. Verg??s, B. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Joint role of non-HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin in predicting future coronary heart disease events among women with type 2 diabetes. Schulze, M.B., Shai, I., Manson, J.E., Li, T., Rifai, N., Jiang, R., Hu, F.B. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Hormones and heart disease in women: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study in perspective. Barrett-Connor, E., Stuenkel, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression status of BCL-6 and syndecan-1 identifies distinct histogenetic subtypes of Hodgkin's disease. Carbone, A., Gloghini, A., Gaidano, G., Franceschi, S., Capello, D., Drexler, H.G., Falini, B., Dalla-Favera, R. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus. Jarrett, R.J. Diabetes (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Insulin sensitivity, proinsulin and insulin as predictors of coronary heart disease. A population-based 10-year, follow-up study in 70-year old men using the euglycaemic insulin clamp. Zethelius, B., Lithell, H., Hales, C.N., Berne, C. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of the metabolic syndrome predict CHD any more strongly than older definitions? Findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Lawlor, D.A., Smith, G.D., Ebrahim, S. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Carotid body hyperplasia in cystic fibrosis and cyanotic heart disease. A combined morphometric, ultrastructural, and biochemical study. Lack, E.E., Perez-Atayde, A.R., Young, J.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Risk factors related to ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease at autopsy: the Honolulu Heart Study. Stemmermann, G.N., Hayashi, T., Resch, J.A., Chung, C.S., Reed, D.M., Rhoads, G.G. Stroke (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Glycosphingolipids of purified human lymphocytes. Stein, K.E., Marcus, D.M. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Atorvastatin reduces the expression of COX-2 mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes from patients with acute myocardial infarction and modulates the early inflammatory response. Deng, P., Zhao, S.P., Dai, H.Y., Guan, X.S., Huang, H.G. Clin. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors. Barrett, M.C., Dawson, A.P. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Cellobiose dehydrogenase from the fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Humicola insolens. A flavohemoprotein from Humicola insolens contains 6-hydroxy-FAD as the dominant active cofactor. Igarashi, K., Verhagen, M.F., Samejima, M., Schülein, M., Eriksson, K.E., Nishino, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Folate and coronary heart disease. Verhoef, P., Stampfer, M.J., Rimm, E.B. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Insulin treatment, endogenous insulin concentration, and ECG abnormalities in diabetic Pima Indians. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Liu, Q.Z., Knowler, W.C., Nelson, R.G., Saad, M.F., Charles, M.A., Liebow, I.M., Bennett, P.H., Pettitt, D.J. Diabetes (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. Slow, S., Garrow, T.A. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of ethyl choline mustard on choline dehydrogenase and other enzymes of choline metabolism. Barlow, P., Marchbanks, R.M. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  34. False positives on diagnostic tests for CHD. Liss, J.P. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Biophysical and structural analysis of a novel heme B iron ligation in the flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase. Rotsaert, F.A., Hallberg, B.M., de Vries, S., Moenne-Loccoz, P., Divne, C., Renganathan, V., Gold, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. What determines the cost-effectiveness of diabetes screening? Glümer, C., Yuyun, M., Griffin, S., Farewell, D., Spiegelhalter, D., Kinmonth, A.L., Wareham, N.J. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Meta-analysis of the relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Koppes, L.L., Dekker, J.M., Hendriks, H.F., Bouter, L.M., Heine, R.J. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
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