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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Halobacterium

  • Here we report the sequence and function of a histidine kinase (CheAH.s.) from Halobacterium salinarium, the first such transmitter in Archaea. The protein CheAH.s. (668 residues) has significant sequence identity with the CheA proteins known from eubacterial signal transduction (e.g. 34% identity with CheA from Bacillus subtilis) [1].
  • The corresponding full-length cDNA was cloned, and the present report demonstrates that the deduced 184-residue amino acid sequence shares greater than 30% identity to a number of bacterial and chloroplast L22 ribosomal proteins, including those from Escherichia coli and Halobacterium halobium [2].
  • Mutations to oxazolidinone resistance in Halobacterium halobium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli map at or near domain V of the 23S rRNA, suggesting that the oxazolidinones may target the peptidyl transferase region responsible for binding fMet-tRNA [3].
  • Glutathione-reductase was found in varying amounts in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes, used in this study, with the exception of the two strict anaerobes Clostridium tartarivorum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and the two primitive Archaebacteria Methanosarcina barkeri and Halobacterium halobium [4].
  • The temperate phage phi H of the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium salinarium encodes a repressor, Rep, which in the immune state represses the production of an early lytic transcript, denoted T4 [5].

High impact information on Halobacterium


Chemical compound and disease context of Halobacterium


Biological context of Halobacterium

  • Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) was expressed in Halobacterium halobium by using a multicopy plasmid containing the bop gene [14].
  • The partial amino acid sequences of the 28-kDa peptides were found in a fragment (amino acids 731-816) obtainable by trypsin cleavage of the known cell-surface glycoprotein of this halobacterium [15].
  • The primary structure and the location of glycosylation sites were determined by cloning and sequencing of the glycoprotein gene of Halobacterium halobium [16].
  • The in-frame deletion of blh, a brp paralog identified by analysis of the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome, reduced bacteriorhodopsin accumulation on solid medium but not in liquid [17].
  • The intron-containing tRNA(Trp) precursor from Halobacterium volcanii, like many intron-containing archaebacterial precursor tRNAs, can assume a structure in which the two intron endonuclease cleavage sites are localized in two three-nucleotide loops separated by four base pairs [18].

Anatomical context of Halobacterium


Associations of Halobacterium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Halobacterium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Halobacterium


  1. Chemotaxis and phototaxis require a CheA histidine kinase in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarium. Rudolph, J., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of an amino acid-regulated mRNA from rat liver as the mammalian equivalent of bacterial ribosomal protein L22. Laine, R.O., Laipis, P.J., Shay, N.F., Kilberg, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Oxazolidinone antibiotics target the P site on Escherichia coli ribosomes. Aoki, H., Ke, L., Poppe, S.M., Poel, T.J., Weaver, E.A., Gadwood, R.C., Thomas, R.C., Shinabarger, D.L., Ganoza, M.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Glutathione reductase in evolution. Ondarza, R.N., Rendón, J.L., Ondarza, M. J. Mol. Evol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcription of the halophage phi H repressor gene is abolished by transcription from an inversely oriented lytic promoter. Stolt, P., Zillig, W. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Conversion of bacteriorhodopsin into a chloride ion pump. Sasaki, J., Brown, L.S., Chon, Y.S., Kandori, H., Maeda, A., Needleman, R., Lanyi, J.K. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Car: a cytoplasmic sensor responsible for arginine chemotaxis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. Storch, K.F., Rudolph, J., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The methyl-accepting transducer protein HtrI is functionally associated with the photoreceptor sensory rhodopsin I in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarium. Ferrando-May, E., Krah, M., Marwan, W., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Signal transduction in Halobacterium depends on fumarate. Marwan, W., Schäfer, W., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. A sparsomycin-resistant mutant of Halobacterium salinarium lacks a modification at nucleotide U2603 in the peptidyl transferase centre of 23 S rRNA. Lázaro, E., Rodriguez-Fonseca, C., Porse, B., Ureña, D., Garrett, R.A., Ballesta, J.P. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amino acids and proteins. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation of deuteriomethyl-labeled amino acids in crystals and in Halobacterium halobium and Escherichia coli cell membranes. Keniry, M.A., Kintanar, A., Smith, R.L., Gutowsky, H.S., Oldfield, E. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Temperature related alterations in the acidic alanine-rich "A" protein from the 50S ribosomal particle of the extreme halophile, Halobacterium cutirubrum. Strom, A.R., Oda, G., Hasnain, S., Yaguchi, M., Visentin, L.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Zillig, W., Stetter, K.O., Janeković, D. Eur. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of the bacterioopsin gene in Halobacterium halobium using a multicopy plasmid. Krebs, M.P., Hauss, T., Heyn, M.P., RajBhandary, U.L., Khorana, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Evidence for covalent attachment of diphytanylglyceryl phosphate to the cell-surface glycoprotein of Halobacterium halobium. Kikuchi, A., Sagami, H., Ogura, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The primary structure of a procaryotic glycoprotein. Cloning and sequencing of the cell surface glycoprotein gene of halobacteria. Lechner, J., Sumper, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. brp and blh are required for synthesis of the retinal cofactor of bacteriorhodopsin in Halobacterium salinarum. Peck, R.F., Echavarri-Erasun, C., Johnson, E.A., Ng, W.V., Kennedy, S.P., Hood, L., DasSarma, S., Krebs, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Recognition of exon-intron boundaries by the Halobacterium volcanii tRNA intron endonuclease. Thompson, L.D., Daniels, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Oriented adsorption of purple membrane to cationic surfaces. Fisher, K.A., Yanagimoto, K., Stoeckenius, W. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification of photochemically active halorhodopsin. Taylor, M.E., Bogomolni, R.A., Weber, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Structure of the retinal chromophore in the hR578 form of halorhodopsin. Smith, S.O., Marvin, M.J., Bogomolni, R.A., Mathies, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Bacterioopsin-triggered retinal biosynthesis is inhibited by bacteriorhodopsin formation in Halobacterium salinarium. Deshpande, A., Sonar, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Dynamic structure of biological membranes as probed by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene: a nanosecond fluorescence depolarization study. Kinosita, K., Kataoka, R., Kimura, Y., Gotoh, O., Ikegami, A. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation and properties of the native chromoprotein halorhodopsin. Steiner, M., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Methyl-accepting taxis proteins in Halobacterium halobium. Alam, M., Lebert, M., Oesterhelt, D., Hazelbauer, G.L. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Retinal location in purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium: a neutron diffraction study of membranes labelled in vivo with deuterated retinal. Jubb, J.S., Worcester, D.L., Crespi, H.L., Zaccaï, G. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Structural (shape-maintaining) role of the cell surface glycoprotein of Halobacterium salinarium. Mescher, M.F., Strominger, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular weight of bacteriorhodopsin solubilized in Triton X-100. Reyenolds, J.A., Stoeckenius, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. The structural protein E of the archaeal virus phiCh1: evidence for processing in Natrialba magadii during virus maturation. Klein, R., Greineder, B., Baranyi, U., Witte, A. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The rightward gas vesicle operon in Halobacterium plasmid pNRC100: identification of the gvpA and gvpC gene products by use of antibody probes and genetic analysis of the region downstream of gvpC. Halladay, J.T., Jones, J.G., Lin, F., MacDonald, A.B., DasSarma, S. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. The gene upstream of DmRP128 codes for a novel GTP-binding protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Sommer, K.A., Petersen, G., Bautz, E.K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Repair of UV damage in Halobacterium salinarum. McCready, S., Marcello, L. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. A C-terminal truncation results in high-level expression of the functional photoreceptor sensory rhodopsin I in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarium. Ferrando-May, E., Brustmann, B., Oesterhelt, D. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Solution structure of halophilic malate dehydrogenase from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and ultracentrifugation. Zaccai, G., Wachtel, E., Eisenberg, H. J. Mol. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Crystallization of halophilic malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui. Harel, M., Shoham, M., Frolow, F., Eisenberg, H., Mevarech, M., Yonath, A., Sussman, J.L. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. A serine proteinase of an archaebacterium, Halobacterium mediterranei. A homologue of eubacterial subtilisins. Stepanov, V.M., Rudenskaya, G.N., Revina, L.P., Gryaznova, Y.B., Lysogorskaya, E.N., Filippova IYu, n.u.l.l., Ivanova, I.I. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Photoreceptor protein from the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. Molecular weight and retinal binding site. Bridgen, J., Walker, I.D. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Secondary structure of halorhodopsin. Jap, B.K., Kong, S.H. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
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