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Gene Review

CFD  -  complement factor D (adipsin)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADIPSIN, ADN, Adipsin, C3 convertase activator, Complement factor D, ...
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Disease relevance of CFD

  • TCCD with different colour-coding techniques, including frequency-based colour-flow (CFD) or power (PD) Doppler sonography, used alone or in combination with contrast media, were used in 23 patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis [1].
  • Lastly, it describes the CFD and experimental study on the microclimate around the eyes, focusing on dry eye syndrome [2].
  • After administration of Levovist, an additional two aneurysms were detected with CFD and three with PD color coding [3].
  • An idealized CFD model and a realistic one were used to investigate the effect of the 3-D distortion of the aortic arch on the blood flow and its pathophysiological significance with respect to the pathogenesis of the aortic aneurysm [4].
  • A combination of in vitro hemolysis tests, flow visualization, and CFD analysis suggested a close relationship between hemolysis and high shear caused by small impeller/casing gaps [5].

Psychiatry related information on CFD


High impact information on CFD


Chemical compound and disease context of CFD


Biological context of CFD

  • While tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and adipsin, an adipocyte derived protease, were unaffected by LIP, changes in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were significantly correlated (p = 0.02) with those seen for PAI-1 [19].
  • Human adipsin is recognized to be identical to factor D, which plays an important role in activation of the alternative complement pathway [20].
  • We conclude that liposuction with the present techniques results in a very modest release of adipsin/factor D that is not associated with increased complement activation [20].
  • Flow in a mechanical bileaflet heart valve at laminar and near-peak systole flow rates: CFD simulations and experiments [21].
  • In our approach, we use ARIA Local, a simulation package applying CFD tools to air pollution modeling, to study different scenarios [22].

Anatomical context of CFD

  • Adipose tissue is a major site of synthesis of human adipsin/complement factor D mRNA, but unlike the case in rodents, human adipsin mRNA is also expressed in monocytes/macrophages [15].
  • Four hundred ninety-four consecutive patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (8-15 mm) were evaluated by US, CFD, and US-FNA [23].
  • To find out whether concentration polarization of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) occurs at the surface of a vascular endothelium or not, transport of LDL in flowing blood to an water-permeable endothelium was studied theoretically by means of CFD [24].
  • 1D and 3D CFD models of the Circle of Willis have been created to simulate clinical scenarios such as inclusions in afferent arteries and absent circulus vessels [25].
  • The only abnormalities detected were foci demonstrated within the myometrium that demonstrated increased flow on CFD [26].

Associations of CFD with chemical compounds

  • PAI-1, insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and adipsin levels were determined at entry, after the first week, after completion of the program, and after 5 months of follow-up [27].
  • Furthermore, there was no correlation between adipsin/factor D values and C3 activation products [20].
  • Since adipsin/factor D is present in high amounts in adipose tissue, liposuction theoretically could result in an increased release of this serine protease into the bloodstream [20].
  • The adsorption rate of the gypsum board predicted by numerical analysis (CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics) corresponds well with experimental results [28].
  • Furthermore, by using this CFD simulator, the distributions of substances such as hydroxyl radical (OH*) and hydrogen peroxide in the O3/UV reactor have been investigated [29].

Other interactions of CFD


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CFD


  1. Transcranial duplex sonography of middle cerebral artery stenosis: a comparison of colour-coding techniques--frequency- or power-based Doppler and contrast enhancement. Griewing, B., Schminke, U., Motsch, L., Brassel, F., Kessler, C. Neuroradiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis and design of micro-climate around the human body with respiration by CFD. Murakami, S. Indoor air. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcranial power mode Doppler duplex sonography of intracranial aneurysms. Griewing, B., Motsch, L., Piek, J., Schminke, U., Brassel, F., Kessler, C. Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and analysis of the effect of 3-D distortion of the human aortic arch. Mori, D., Yamaguchi, T. Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Flow visualization as a complementary tool to hemolysis testing in the development of centrifugal blood pumps. Yamane, T., Asztalos, B., Nishida, M., Masuzawa, T., Takiura, K., Taenaka, Y., Konishi, Y., Miyazoe, Y., Ito, K. Artificial organs. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Design performance in Alzheimer's disease and closed head injury. Bigler, E.D., Rosa, L., Schultz, F., Hall, S., Harris, J. Journal of clinical psychology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of body weight and caloric restriction on serum complement proteins, including Factor D/adipsin: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Pomeroy, C., Mitchell, J., Eckert, E., Raymond, N., Crosby, R., Dalmasso, A.P. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic variation at the adipsin locus and response to long-term overfeeding. Ukkola, O., Chagnon, M., Tremblay, A., Bouchard, C. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Curriculum revision in an ADN program: mental health and maternity. Simpson, N., Young, N. Nursing & health care : official publication of the National League for Nursing. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. How ADN students can learn prenatal (healthy) care. Cranmer, J., Lajkowicz, C. Advancing clinical care : official journal of NOAADN. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Properdin factor D: effects on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Davis, A.E., Kenney, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Response of bone marrow stromal cells to adipogenic antagonists. Gimble, J.M., Dorheim, M.A., Cheng, Q., Pekala, P., Enerback, S., Ellingsworth, L., Kincade, P.W., Wang, C.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase gene expression by tumor necrosis factor in 30A-5 preadipocytes. Pape, M.E., Kim, K.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Adipocytic differentiation and liver x receptor pathways regulate the accumulation of triacylglycerols in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Davies, J.D., Carpenter, K.L., Challis, I.R., Figg, N.L., McNair, R., Proudfoot, D., Weissberg, P.L., Shanahan, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Human adipsin is identical to complement factor D and is expressed at high levels in adipose tissue. White, R.T., Damm, D., Hancock, N., Rosen, B.S., Lowell, B.B., Usher, P., Flier, J.S., Spiegelman, B.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Recurrence of dense deposits in transplanted kidney: II. Serum complement and nephritic factor profiles. Leibowitch, J., Halbwachs, L., Wattel, S., Gaillard, M.H., Droz, D. Kidney Int. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-beta expression in malignant glioma cells. Burghardt, I., Tritschler, F., Opitz, C.A., Frank, B., Weller, M., Wick, W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression and complement d activity of porcine adipsin. Miner, J.L., Hahn, K.J., Spurlock, M.E., Staten, N.R. Protein Expr. Purif. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Increased plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule after triacylglycerol infusion in man. Krebs, M., Geiger, M., Polak, K., Vales, A., Schmetterer, L., Wagner, O.F., Waldhäusl, W., Binder, B.R., Roden, M. Thromb. Haemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Modest release of adipsin/factor D by liposuction when using the superwet or tumescent technique. Samdal, F., Mollnes, T.E., Amland, P.F., Truedsson, L. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Flow in a mechanical bileaflet heart valve at laminar and near-peak systole flow rates: CFD simulations and experiments. Ge, L., Leo, H.L., Sotiropoulos, F., Yoganathan, A.P. Journal of biomechanical engineering. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Short-range evaluation of air pollution near bus and railway stations. Corfa, E., Maury, F., Segers, P., Fresneau, A., Albergel, A. Sci. Total Environ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features. Papini, E., Guglielmi, R., Bianchini, A., Crescenzi, A., Taccogna, S., Nardi, F., Panunzi, C., Rinaldi, R., Toscano, V., Pacella, C.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Prediction of LDL concentration at the luminal surface of a vascular endothelium. Wada, S., Karino, T. Biorheology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. 1D and 3D models of auto-regulated cerebrovascular flow. Moorhead, K., Moore, S., Chase, J., David, T., Fink, J. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Persistent postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease: use of transvaginal sonography and colour flow Doppler. Carter, J., Carlson, J., Hartenbach, E., Saltzman, A., Fowler, J., Carson, L., Twiggs, L.B. The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Impact of adipose tissue on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in dieting obese women. Mavri, A., Stegnar, M., Krebs, M., Sentocnik, J.T., Geiger, M., Binder, B.R. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Study of effect of adsorptive building material on formaldehyde concentrations: development of measuring methods and modeling of adsorption phenomena. Ataka, Y., Kato, S., Murakami, S., Zhu, Q., Ito, K., Yokota, T. Indoor air. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Development of a simulator for ozone/UV reactor based on CFD analysis. Kamimura, M., Furukawa, S., Hirotsuji, J. Water Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene expression during differentiation of human preadipocytes to adipocytes in primary culture. Gauthier, B., Robb, M., McPherson, R. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Cellular and molecular aspects of adipose tissue development. Ailhaud, G., Grimaldi, P., Négrel, R. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Developmental expression and functional activity of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenoceptors in murine 3T3-F442A differentiating adipocytes. El Hadri, K., Fève, B., Pairault, J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Mesenchymal progenitor cells in the human umbilical cord. Kim, J.W., Kim, S.Y., Park, S.Y., Kim, Y.M., Kim, J.M., Lee, M.H., Ryu, H.M. Ann. Hematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulation of adipose cell differentiation. I. Fatty acids are inducers of the aP2 gene expression. Amri, E.Z., Bertrand, B., Ailhaud, G., Grimaldi, P. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Short-term ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves gallbladder bile turnover in gallstone patients: a randomized trial. Guarino, M.P., Carotti, S., Sarzano, M., Alloni, R., Vanni, M., Grosso, M., Sironi, G., Maffettone, P.L., Cicala, M. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Value of the CT angiography in the diagnosis of common carotid artery bifurcation disease: CT angiography versus digital subtraction angiography and color flow Doppler. Moll, R., Dinkel, H.P. European journal of radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. A CFD study of the deep bed filtration mechanism for submicron/nano-particle suspension. Tung, K.L., Chang, Y.L., Lai, J.Y., Chang, C.H., Chuang, C.J. Water Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Assessment of haemolytic and thromboembolic potentials--from CFD studies of Starr-Edwards cardiac valve prostheses. Tansley, G.D., Mazumdar, J., Noye, B.J., Craig, I.H., Thalassoudis, K. Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine / supported by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists in Medicine and the Australasian Association of Physical Sciences in Medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
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