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MeSH Review

Far East

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Disease relevance of Far East

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and eastern Asia. Hepatitis B virus and aflatoxins are risk factors for HCC, but the molecular mechanism of human hepatocellular carcinogenesis is largely unknown [1].
  • OPLL is a common disorder among elderly populations in eastern Asia and is the leading cause of spinal myelopathy in Japan. We performed a genomewide linkage study with 142 affected sib pairs, to identify genetic loci related to OPLL [2].
  • In the high HCC incidence regions of sub- Saharan Africa and the Far East, an etiology common to the two disorders, HBV and possibly other hepatitis viruses, seems to account for the majority of cases [3].
  • The results of this study led to three conclusions: chancroid is a relatively common disease in the Far East, the causative organism can be isolated by most clinical microbiology laboratories with proper technique, and erythromycin is an effective drug in the treatment of chancroid [4].
  • We therefore propose a borderline between Kyushu and Amamiohshima Island for the geographical distribution of RNA coliphages in the domestic drainage of South and East Asia. Moreover, one strain (ID2) was inactivated to some extent with the antisera of four groups of RNA phages [5].

Psychiatry related information on Far East


High impact information on Far East

  • To test the hypotheses of modern human origin in East Asia, we sampled 12,127 male individuals from 163 populations and typed for three Y chromosome biallelic markers (YAP, M89, and M130) [7].
  • Most strains isolated in or epidemiologically linked with the Far East are relatively resistant to tetracycline in vitro, are phenotypically wild-type or proline-dependent auxotypes, and carry a plasmid with a molecular weight of 5800 000 (5-8 X 10(6)) daltons coding for beta-lactamase production [8].
  • In contrast, predominant CagA proteins specified by H. pylori strains isolated in East Asia, where gastric carcinoma is prevalent, had a distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sequence at the region corresponding to the repeat sequence of Western CagA [9].
  • The dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki at Tham Khuyen helps to establish the long co-existence of these two species throughout east Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene [10].
  • New Zealand Maori, who have a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, have genetic origins in South East Asia. Amylin gene mutations could therefore predispose New Zealand Maori to Type 2 diabetes [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Far East

  • The authors conclude that kanamycin is safe, economical and very effective in the treatment of gonorrhoea caused by the strains of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in South East Asia [12].
  • Penicillin-resistant and even multiresistant pneumococci have spread worldwide, but primarily in the United States, some European countries, South Africa, and the Far East. A similar trend is evidenced by ampicillin-resistant Hemophilus influenzae, whereas Moraxella catarrhalis almost invariably produces beta-lactamases [13].

Biological context of Far East

  • Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have only a subset of the southern haplotypes [14].
  • We examined the genotypes of HPA-2 and TR polymorphism in three different races from Eastern Asia; the Japanese (n = 103), Korean (n = 101) and Chinese population (n = 177) [15].
  • DNA sequence motifs of vacAm1 (middle region) alleles formed a cluster that was distinct from those of east Asia and the West, whereas the cagA sequences of Calcutta and Western strains were closely related [16].
  • NMS for citrin deficiency (frequency of homozygote with SLC25A13 mutation: 1/10,000-1/38,000 in East Asia) will be useful for clarification of the clinical course, treatment, and prevention of this disease [17].
  • The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships [18].

Anatomical context of Far East

  • Japonicum in the Far East. Renal involvement occurs mostly with S. hematobium infection as a consequence of fibrosis and calcification of tissue-trapped ova in the lower urinary tract, leading to obstruction, reflux, infection, and stone formation [19].

Associations of Far East with chemical compounds


Gene context of Far East

  • Extracts from 12 plants (4.5%), including Arnebia euchroma, a medicinal plant used in the Far East to treat inflammation, inhibited the stimulation of COX-2 promoter activity [25].
  • In the present study, we identified a novel mutation IVS6+1G>C in a Japanese CTLN2 patient and widely screened 12 SLC25A13 mutations found in Japanese patients in control individuals from East Asia to confirm our preliminary results that the carrier frequency was high in Asian populations [26].
  • The heterozygosity level ranges from 22% in Europe to 13.6% in Southwest Asia with the lowest value of 7.4% in Siberia/East Asia. The present study provides evidence of clinal distribution of POLG gene heterozygosity in North Eurasian populations [27].
  • Although south and east Asia contain nearly one half of the global population, the origins and frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations in these regions are unknown [28].
  • G6PD Canton a common deficient variant in South East Asia caused by a 459 Arg----Leu mutation [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Far East


  1. Selective G to T mutations of p53 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma from southern Africa. Bressac, B., Kew, M., Wands, J., Ozturk, M. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Genomewide linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses identify COL6A1, on chromosome 21, as the locus for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Tanaka, T., Ikari, K., Furushima, K., Okada, A., Tanaka, H., Furukawa, K., Yoshida, K., Ikeda, T., Ikegawa, S., Hunt, S.C., Takeda, J., Toh, S., Harata, S., Nakajima, T., Inoue, I. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Kew, M.C., Popper, H. Semin. Liver Dis. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Treatment of chancroid with erythromycin. Carpenter, J.L., Back, A., Gehle, D., Oberhoffer, T. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution of ribonucleic acid coliphages in south and east Asia. Furuse, K., Sakurai, T., Hirashima, A., Katsuki, M., Ando, A., Watanabe, I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Substance abuse problems in the Magadan Region of the Russian Far East. Lisenko, V.P., Richards, B. Alaska medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. African origin of modern humans in East Asia: a tale of 12,000 Y chromosomes. Ke, Y., Su, B., Song, X., Lu, D., Chen, L., Li, H., Qi, C., Marzuki, S., Deka, R., Underhill, P., Xiao, C., Shriver, M., Lell, J., Wallace, D., Wells, R.S., Seielstad, M., Oefner, P., Zhu, D., Jin, J., Huang, W., Chakraborty, R., Chen, Z., Jin, L. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for two distinct types of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Perine, P.L., Thornsberry, C., Schalla, W., Biddle, J., Siegel, M.S., Wong, K.H., Thompson, S.E. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Biological activity of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA is determined by variation in the tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Higashi, H., Tsutsumi, R., Fujita, A., Yamazaki, S., Asaka, M., Azuma, T., Hatakeyama, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam. Ciochon, R., Long, V.T., Larick, R., González, L., Grün, R., de Vos, J., Yonge, C., Taylor, L., Yoshida, H., Reagan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Amylin gene promoter mutations predispose to Type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Maori. Poa, N.R., Cooper, G.J., Edgar, P.F. Diabetologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Kanamycin in the treatment of penicillinase-producing gonococcai infections. Rajan, V.S., Pang, R., Tan, N.J., Sng, E.H. Asian journal of infectious diseases. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Antibiotic resistance in community-acquired pulmonary pathogens. Paradisi, F., Corti, G. Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Y-Chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the last Ice Age. Su, B., Xiao, J., Underhill, P., Deka, R., Zhang, W., Akey, J., Huang, W., Shen, D., Lu, D., Luo, J., Chu, J., Tan, J., Shen, P., Davis, R., Cavalli-Sforza, L., Chakraborty, R., Xiong, M., Du, R., Oefner, P., Chen, Z., Jin, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The largest isoform of platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib alpha is commonly distributed in eastern Asian populations. Ishida, F., Furihata, K., Ishida, K., Kodaira, H., Han, K.S., Liu, D.Z., Kitano, K., Kiyosawa, K. Thromb. Haemost. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Distinctiveness of genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Calcutta, India. Mukhopadhyay, A.K., Kersulyte, D., Jeong, J.Y., Datta, S., Ito, Y., Chowdhury, A., Chowdhury, S., Santra, A., Bhattacharya, S.K., Azuma, T., Nair, G.B., Berg, D.E. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of citrin deficiency in the perinatal period: feasibility of newborn mass screening for citrin deficiency. Tamamori, A., Fujimoto, A., Okano, Y., Kobayashi, K., Saheki, T., Tagami, Y., Takei, H., Shigematsu, Y., Hata, I., Ozaki, H., Tokuhara, D., Nishimura, Y., Yorifuji, T., Igarashi, N., Ohura, T., Shimizu, T., Inui, K., Sakai, N., Abukawa, D., Miyakawa, T., Matsumori, M., Ban, K., Kaneko, H., Yamano, T. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues. Atopkina, L.N., Malinovskaya, G.V., Elyakov, G.B., Uvarova, N.I., Woerdenbag, H.J., Koulman, A., Pras, N., Potier, P. Planta Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Schistosomiasis and the kidney. Barsoum, R.S. Semin. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Primary dual defect of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in liver of patients with intrahepatic calculi. Shoda, J., He, B.F., Tanaka, N., Matsuzaki, Y., Yamamori, S., Osuga, T. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Reversal of chloroquine resistance in falciparum malaria. Ryall, J.C. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparison of aminoglycoside resistance patterns in Japan, Formosa, and Korea, Chile, and the United States. Shimizu, K., Kumada, T., Hsieh, W.C., Chung, H.Y., Chong, Y., Hare, R.S., Miller, G.H., Sabatelli, F.J., Howard, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and emerging ciprofloxacin resistance in the Netherlands, 1991 to 1998. de Neeling, A.J., van Santen-Verheuvel, M., Spaargaren, J., Willems, R.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Prevention of malaria. Keystone, J.S. Drugs (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Development and use of a gene promoter-based screen to identify novel inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 transcription. Subbaramaiah, K., Bulic, P., Lin, Y., Dannenberg, A.J., Pasco, D.S. Journal of biomolecular screening : the official journal of the Society for Biomolecular Screening. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Frequency and distribution in East Asia of 12 mutations identified in the SLC25A13 gene of Japanese patients with citrin deficiency. Lu, Y.B., Kobayashi, K., Ushikai, M., Tabata, A., Iijima, M., Li, M.X., Lei, L., Kawabe, K., Taura, S., Yang, Y., Liu, T.T., Chiang, S.H., Hsiao, K.J., Lau, Y.L., Tsui, L.C., Lee, D.H., Saheki, T. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Low variability of the POLG (CAG)n repeat in north Eurasian populations. Malyarchuk, B.A., Papuga, M., Grzybowski, T., Rogozin, I.B., Wozniak, M., Derenko, M.V., Rychkov, S.Y., Czarny, J., Zakharov, I.A., Miścicka-Sliwka, D. Hum. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Origins and frequencies of SLC26A4 (PDS) mutations in east and south Asians: global implications for the epidemiology of deafness. Park, H.J., Shaukat, S., Liu, X.Z., Hahn, S.H., Naz, S., Ghosh, M., Kim, H.N., Moon, S.K., Abe, S., Tukamoto, K., Riazuddin, S., Kabra, M., Erdenetungalag, R., Radnaabazar, J., Khan, S., Pandya, A., Usami, S.I., Nance, W.E., Wilcox, E.R., Riazuddin, S., Griffith, A.J. J. Med. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. G6PD Canton a common deficient variant in South East Asia caused by a 459 Arg----Leu mutation. Stevens, D.J., Wanachiwanawin, W., Mason, P.J., Vulliamy, T.J., Luzzatto, L. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Mecillinam, a new prophylactic for travellers' diarrhoea. A prospective double-blind study in tourists travelling to Egypt and the Far East. Black, F.T., Gaarslev, K., Orskov, F., Orskov, I., Stenderup, A., Stenderup, J., Christensen, O. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori: separation of H. pylori from East Asian and non-Asian countries. Yamaoka, Y., Osato, M.S., Sepulveda, A.R., Gutierrez, O., Figura, N., Kim, J.G., Kodama, T., Kashima, K., Graham, D.Y. Epidemiol. Infect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Slavic ethnomedicine in the Soviet Far East. Part I: Herbal remedies among Russians/Ukrainians in the Sukhodol Valley, Primorye. Moskalenko, S.A. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Falk, E.S., Danielsson, D., Bjorvatn, B., Melby, K., Sørensen, B., Kristiansen, B.E., Lund, S., Sandström, E. Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Prolonged survival in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient with multiple metastases: a case report and review of the literature. Chou, C.W., Liu, J.M., Wu, M.F., Li, A.F., Tie, C.M., Chi, K.H. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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