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Gene Review

GNL3  -  guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C77032, E2-induced gene 3 protein, E2IG3, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3, MGC800, ...
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Disease relevance of GNL3


Psychiatry related information on GNL3


High impact information on GNL3

  • Recombinant RNA is expressed from plasmid DNA in which the coding sequence of the influenza A virus NS gene is replaced with that of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene [8].
  • Variation in influenza A viruses was examined by comparison of nucleotide sequences of the NS gene (890 bases) of 15 human viruses isolated over 53 years (1933 to 1985) [9].
  • Evolution of human influenza A viruses over 50 years: rapid, uniform rate of change in NS gene [9].
  • This uniform and rapid rate of evolution in the NS gene is a good molecular clock and is compatible with the hypothesis that positive selection is operating on the hemagglutinin (or perhaps some other viral genes) to preserve random mutations in the NS gene [9].
  • Use of the two-dimensional separation has allowed us to identify glycoprotein heterogeneity, to demonstrate directly the synthesis of neuraminidase, to analyze some viral proteins early after infection, and to demonstrate that the influenza virus NP and NS proteins are phosphorylated in infected MDCK cells [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of GNL3

  • Colloidal gold spheres were coated with staphylococcal protein A and were used to determine the location of NS and L proteins on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes using monospecific anti-NS and anti-L IgG preparations [11].
  • Due to the central position of dopamine and the documented low NS in Parkinson's disease (PD), the frequency of the exon 3 variants of D4DR in 95 PD patients and 47 controls was investigated [12].
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS-IIIA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of heparan-N-sulfamidase (NS; EC, resulting in defective degradation and subsequent storage of heparan sulfate and leading to a clinical phenotype known as Sanfilippo syndrome [13].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene polymorphism with the temperament dimension of novelty seeking (NS) on cardiovascular heart disease risk factors [the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides] [14].
  • To locate epitopes on internal antigens of rabies virus, purified N and NS proteins of the nucleocapsid were cleaved at methionine, tryptophan or glutamic acid residues, transferred to nitrocellulose and immunostained using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for N and NS proteins, respectively [15].

Biological context of GNL3

  • Results showed that the expression of nucleostemin, a novel factor participating in the control of stem and cancer cell proliferation, was different in F6 cells and MSCs [2].
  • The results also showed that transfection with pcDNA3.1(+)-GFP-nucleostemin for 4-20 weeks promoted cell size augmentation and nuclei multiplication, and the cells were converted to giant cell-like cells [2].
  • RESULTS: Two positive clones that interacted with NS were obtained from human placenta cDNA library [16].
  • Nucleostemin Delays Cellular Senescence and Negatively Regulates TRF1 Protein Stability [17].
  • The embryogenesis of homozygous NS-null (NS(-/-)) mice was aborted before the blastula stage [17].

Anatomical context of GNL3


Associations of GNL3 with chemical compounds

  • The proximal airway AP isoform was identified as nonspecific AP (NS AP) by levamisole sensitivity and mRNA expression [18].
  • The viral nonstructural (NS 1) protein is also phosphorylated, but on threonine residues [19].
  • Collectively, these experiments support a major role for extracellular nucleotide catalysis and for ecto 5'-NT and NS AP in the regulation of adenosine concentrations on airway surfaces [18].
  • The long alleles (> or =6 repeats) of the dopamine D4 dopamine receptor exon III polymorphism have been linked in some, but not all, studies to Novelty Seeking (NS), one of four personality traits defined by Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnarie (TPQ) [20].
  • In the absence of the short 5-HTTLPR allele and in the presence of the high enzyme activity COMT val/val genotype, NS scores are higher in the presence of the DRD4 seven-repeat allele [21].

Physical interactions of GNL3


Regulatory relationships of GNL3

  • A small population of these nucleostemin-positive cells also expressed galectin-1 but not galectins-3 and -9 in their nucleoli [3].

Other interactions of GNL3

  • CONCLUSION: NS and PPP2R5A interact in yeast and mammalian cells, respectively, which is helpful for addressing the function of NS in cancer development and progression [16].
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical monitoring revealed expression of nucleostemin in cells of both Ki67-positive and -negative nuclei regardless of the K10-expression status [3].
  • And for the first time our findings demonstrated that if NS expression of Hela cells was knocked down, more Hela cells couldn't complete the DNA synthesis to pass through S phase [22].
  • A nucleostemin-interacting protein, RSL1D1, was identified that contains a ribosomal L1-domain [23].
  • The mRNA expression of Smad3 increased, but those of c-myc and nucleostemin decreased with the length of hMSC in vitro culture [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GNL3

  • METHODS: RT-PCR was used to clone the fragment of nucleostemin cDNA from HEK 293 cells [1].
  • METHODS: Yeast two-hybrid assay was performed to screen a human placenta cDNA library with the full length of NS as a bait [16].
  • Eighteen kinds of malignant tumor tissues including gastric adenocarcinoma and liver cancer tissues, 3 kinds of benign tumor tissues, 3 kinds of benign hyperplastic tissues and normal tissues were employed to examine nucleostemin gene expression by RT-PCR, Slot blot, Northern blot and in situ hybridization [1].
  • In an attempt to confirm the association found by Benjamin et al using NEO-PI-R estimated NS, the present study used an alternative design extreme groups strategy to select high and low novelty seeking research volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) [5].
  • A genetic sequence analysis revealed that among the eight segments (genes) the PB1, HA, and NA genes were almost identical with allelic genes of the USSR/77 strain, and the PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS genes were almost identical with those of the A/PR/8/34 strain [25].


  1. Role of nucleostemin in growth regulation of gastric cancer, liver cancer and other malignancies. Liu, S.J., Cai, Z.W., Liu, Y.J., Dong, M.Y., Sun, L.Q., Hu, G.F., Wei, Y.Y., Lao, W.D. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning of the nucleostemin gene and its function in transforming human embryonic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into F6 tumor cells. Han, C., Zhang, X., Xu, W., Wang, W., Qian, H., Chen, Y. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunocyto- and histochemical profiling of nucleostemin expression: Marker of epidermal stem cells? Lacina, L., Smetana, K., Dvor??nkov??, B., Stork, J., Plz??kov??, Z., Gabius, H.J. J. Dermatol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with Novelty Seeking (NS) and substance abuse: the saga continues... Lusher, J.M., Chandler, C., Ball, D. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. No association between novelty seeking and dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III seven repeat alleles in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants. Vandenbergh, D.J., Zonderman, A.B., Wang, J., Uhl, G.R., Costa, P.T. Mol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Tridimensional personality questionnaire factors in major depressive disorder: relationship to anxiety disorder comorbidity and age of onset. Ongur, D., Farabaugh, A., Iosifescu, D.V., Perlis, R., Fava, M. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Personality dimensions of opiate addicts. Vukov, M., Baba-Milkic, N., Lecic, D., Mijalkovic, S., Marinkovic, J. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Amplification, expression, and packaging of foreign gene by influenza virus. Luytjes, W., Krystal, M., Enami, M., Pavin, J.D., Palese, P. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Evolution of human influenza A viruses over 50 years: rapid, uniform rate of change in NS gene. Buonagurio, D.A., Nakada, S., Parvin, J.D., Krystal, M., Palese, P., Fitch, W.M. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Influenza virus proteins: identity, synthesis, and modification analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Privalsky, M.L., Penhoet, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Ultrastructural localization of L and NS enzyme subunits on vesicular stomatitis virus RNPs using gold sphere-staphylococcal protein A-monospecific IgG conjugates. Harmon, S.A., Robinson, E.N., Summers, D.F. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of long variants of the dopamine D4 receptor exon 3 repeat polymorphism with Parkinson's disease. Ricketts, M.H., Hamer, R.M., Manowitz, P., Feng, F., Sage, J.I., Di Paola, R., Menza, M.A. Clin. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Prediction of Sanfilippo phenotype severity from immunoquantification of heparan-N-sulfamidase in cultured fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA patients. Perkins, K.J., Muller, V., Weber, B., Hopwood, J.J. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and lipid metabolism: what is the role of novelty seeking? Elovainio, M., Puttonen, S., Heponiemi, T., Reuter, M., Kivimaki, M., Viikari, J., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. Neuropsychobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization and immunological characterization of antigenic domains of the rabies virus internal N and NS proteins. Dietzschold, B., Lafon, M., Wang, H., Otvos, L., Celis, E., Wunner, W.H., Koprowski, H. Virus Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Screening and identification of proteins interacting with nucleostemin. Yang, H.X., Jin, G.L., Meng, L., Zhang, J.Z., Liu, W.B., Shou, C.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Nucleostemin Delays Cellular Senescence and Negatively Regulates TRF1 Protein Stability. Zhu, Q., Yasumoto, H., Tsai, R.Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Ecto 5'-nucleotidase and nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. Two AMP-hydrolyzing ectoenzymes with distinct roles in human airways. Picher, M., Burch, L.H., Hirsh, A.J., Spychala, J., Boucher, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The structure and synthesis of influenza virus phosphoproteins. Privalsky, M.L., Penhoet, E.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Additional evidence for an association between the dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III repeat polymorphism and the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking. Ebstein, R.P., Nemanov, L., Klotz, I., Gritsenko, I., Belmaker, R.H. Mol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Association between tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) traits and three functional polymorphisms: dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT). Benjamin, J., Osher, Y., Kotler, M., Gritsenko, I., Nemanov, L., Belmaker, R.H., Ebstein, R.P. Mol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of knocking-down nucleostemin gene expression on the in vitro proliferation and in vivo tumorigenesis of HeLa cells. Sijin, L., Ziwei, C., Yajun, L., Meiyu, D., Hongwei, Z., Guofa, H., Siguo, L., Hong, G., Zhihong, Z., Xiaolei, L., Yingyun, W., Yan, X., Weide, L. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Multiple controls regulate nucleostemin partitioning between nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Meng, L., Yasumoto, H., Tsai, R.Y. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Changes in expression of genes related to cell proliferation in human mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture in comparison with cancer cells. Sawada, R., Ito, T., Tsuchiya, T. Journal of artificial organs : the official journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. A reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus caused fatal epizootics among camels in Mongolia. Yamnikova, S.S., Mandler, J., Bekh-Ochir, Z.H., Dachtzeren, P., Ludwig, S., Lvov, D.K., Scholtissek, C. Virology (1993) [Pubmed]
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