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Gene Review

PRB1  -  proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Basic salivary proline-rich protein 1, PM, PMF, PMS, PRB1L, ...
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Disease relevance of PRB1


Psychiatry related information on PRB1

  • Although PMS would appear to be the best candidate for a mood disorder associated with abnormalities in reproductive hormones, no abnormalities in LH, estradiol or progesterone have been documented in PMS either [62] [6].
  • Fourteen women with PMS and ten without PMS were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests during the follicular and late luteal phases of two consecutive menstrual cycles [7].
  • Depressive symptoms, which were the most important in leading women to seek help for their PMS, were related to all three factors [8].
  • PMS is a well-defined premenstrual cluster of predominantly affective symptoms that disrupt a woman's daily functioning [9].
  • Periodic leg movements during sleep (PMS) is a disorder frequently encountered in narcolepsy [10].

High impact information on PRB1

  • Analysis of the effects of PMF, varied ATP concentrations or synthetic translocation arrest show that the stop-translocation efficiency of a mildly hydrophobic segment depends on the translocation kinetics [11].
  • The Ps1 gene is predicted to encode lycopene beta-cyclase and is necessary for the accumulation of both abscisic acid and the carotenoid zeaxanthin in mature maize embryos [12].
  • Eight additional PM genes are present in the P. falciparum genome [13].
  • Our genome-wide analysis reveals that PM I, II, and IV and histo-aspartic protease encode hemoglobin-degrading food vacuole proteases [13].
  • Because of a probable gene conversion encompassing > or = 684 bp of DNA, the "PRB2-like" Con2 glycoprotein is encoded in exon 3 of a PRB1 allele (PRB1M CON2+) with a potential glycosylation site [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of PRB1

  • A total of 60 patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with a combination of prednimustine (P: 110 mg/m2, days 1-5), mitoxantrone (M: 12 mg/m2, day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (F: 500 mg/m2, day 1) (PMF) [15].
  • Preliminary studies indicate a role for further research on Vitamin B6 or ginger for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; calcium, magnesium, Vitamin B6, or chaste-tree berry extract for PMS; and a low-fat diet, exercise, or fish oil supplementation for dysmenorrhea [16].
  • These results are discussed in relation to the role of dopamine in the physiopathology of narcolepsy and PMS [10].
  • While there was little difference in hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity between those patients receiving P or PF, and such toxicity was generally acceptable to both patients and physicians, the addition of MTX (PMF) resulted in greater toxicity (vomiting, stomatitis, and alopecia) which was less readily accepted [17].
  • AIMS: To compare, according to a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of a pharmaceutical preparation of a specific 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment (PMF 303) and of the common preparation reported in the literature on the anal resting pressure in patients with anal fissure [18].

Biological context of PRB1


Anatomical context of PRB1

  • When unpaired PMS neurons are examined in pairs of adjacent ganglia, however, the cells are from opposite sides in the majority of cases (approximately 88%) [4].
  • In summary, we propose that Ps1 is involved in the functional manifestation of the segmentation clock in the presomitic mesoderm [22].
  • Thus, Ps1-dependent activation of the Notch pathway is essential for caudal half somite development [22].
  • These methods permit the selection of homogeneous populations of the three mitotic fibroblast cell types MF I, II and III, and the four postmitotic cell types PMF IV, V, VI and VII [23].
  • Among the hydrolytic enzymes, we have identified a basic proteinase (Prb1) which is induced by either autoclaved mycelia, fungal cell wall preparation or chitin; however, the induction does not occur in the presence of glucose [24].

Associations of PRB1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PRB1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRB1

  • Solution and solid-state circular dichroism analyses of a human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein repeating domain and its subfragments [34].
  • Use of the Paragon Multiple Stain for Frozen Sections (PMS) for Tzanck preparations of herpetic lesions has several distinct advantages over procedures previously described; the method is rapid, simple, inexpensive, and results in hematoxylin-eosin-like staining [35].
  • We first searched for a c-mpl mutation/deletion by sequencing the entire coding region of the gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nine ET patients and five PMF patients, but no mutation was found [3].
  • Cell cultures established from renal biopsies revealed the presence of the three mitotic fibroblast types (MF I through MF III) and the three postmitotic types (PMF IV through PMF VI) [36].
  • For each LNAA, except tryptophan, "fed" values (ie, those at 3 PM and 7 PM) were decreased relative to "fasting" values (those at 3 AM and 7 AM) after consumption of the O-g protein-free diet, but increased after consumption of the 150-g protein diet [37].


  1. Mutations of two PMS homologues in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Nicolaides, N.C., Papadopoulos, N., Liu, B., Wei, Y.F., Carter, K.C., Ruben, S.M., Rosen, C.A., Haseltine, W.A., Fleischmann, R.D., Fraser, C.M. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Hormone-induced progesterone receptor phosphorylation consists of sequential DNA-independent and DNA-dependent stages: analysis with zinc finger mutants and the progesterone antagonist ZK98299. Takimoto, G.S., Tasset, D.M., Eppert, A.C., Horwitz, K.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Autonomous megakaryocyte growth in essential thrombocythemia and idiopathic myelofibrosis is not related to a c-mpl mutation or to an autocrine stimulation by Mpl-L. Taksin, A.L., Couedic, J.P., Dusanter-Fourt, I., Massé, A., Giraudier, S., Katz, A., Wendling, F., Vainchenker, W., Casadevall, N., Debili, N. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell death during gangliogenesis in the leech: competition leading to the death of PMS neurons has both random and nonrandom components. Macagno, E.R., Stewart, R.R. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Bulimia, menstruation, and PMS: treatment implications. Price, W.A., DiMarzio, L.R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mood disorders. Young, E.A., Korszun, A. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Psychological aspects of premenstrual syndrome. I: Cognition and memory. Keenan, P.A., Stern, R.A., Janowsky, D.S., Pedersen, C.A. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Perimenstrual complaints in women complaining of PMS, menorrhagia, and dysmenorrhea: toward a dismantling of the premenstrual syndrome. Bancroft, J., Williamson, L., Warner, P., Rennie, D., Smith, S.K. Psychosomatic medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. A clinician's guide to the premenstrual syndrome. Barnhart, K.T., Freeman, E.W., Sondheimer, S.J. Med. Clin. North Am. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Nocturnal gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Effect on periodic leg movements and sleep organization of narcoleptic patients. Bédard, M.A., Montplaisir, J., Godbout, R., Lapierre, O. Clinical neuropharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Sec-dependent membrane protein biogenesis: SecYEG, preprotein hydrophobicity and translocation kinetics control the stop-transfer function. Duong, F., Wickner, W. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Activator mutagenesis of the pink scutellum1/viviparous7 locus of maize. Singh, M., Lewis, P.E., Hardeman, K., Bai, L., Rose, J.K., Mazourek, M., Chomet, P., Brutnell, T.P. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Four plasmepsins are active in the Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole, including a protease with an active-site histidine. Banerjee, R., Liu, J., Beatty, W., Pelosof, L., Klemba, M., Goldberg, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. PRB1, PRB2, and PRB4 coded polymorphisms among human salivary concanavalin-A binding, II-1, and Po proline-rich proteins. Azen, E.A., Amberger, E., Fisher, S., Prakobphol, A., Niece, R.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Prednimustine combined with mitoxantrone and 5-fluorouracil for first and second-line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. Samonigg, H., Stöger, H., Kasparek, A.K., Schmid, M., Dusleag, J., Pfeiffer, K., Smola, M., Steindorfer, P., Lechner, P. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials. Fugh-Berman, A., Kronenberg, F. Reprod. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) experience from 1717 patients receiving single and multiple agents. Glass, A., Wieand, H.S., Fisher, B., Redmond, C., Lerner, H., Wolter, J., Shibata, H., Plotkin, D., Foster, R., Margolese, R., Wolmark, N. Cancer treatment reports. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Double-blind manometric assessment of two topical glyceryl trinitrate formulations in patients with chronic anal fissures. Bassotti, G., Clementi, M., Ceccarelli, F., Pelli, M.A. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Length polymorphisms in human proline-rich protein genes generated by intragenic unequal crossing over. Lyons, K.M., Stein, J.H., Smithies, O. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. A physical map of the human salivary proline-rich protein gene cluster covers over 700 kbp of DNA. Kim, H.S., Smithies, O., Maeda, N. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. PRB2/1 fusion gene: a product of unequal and homologous crossing-over between proline-rich protein (PRP) genes PRB1 and PRB2. Azen, E.A., O'Connell, P., Kim, H.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of presenilin 1 during somite segmentation. Koizumi , K., Nakajima, M., Yuasa, S., Saga, Y., Sakai, T., Kuriyama, T., Shirasawa, T., Koseki, H. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytoplasmic, nuclear, membrane-bound and secreted [35S]methionine-labelled polypeptide pattern in differentiating fibroblast stem cells in vitro. Francz, P.I., Bayreuther, K., Rodemann, H.P. J. Cell. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular characterization of the proteinase-encoding gene, prb1, related to mycoparasitism by Trichoderma harzianum. Geremia, R.A., Goldman, G.H., Jacobs, D., Ardiles, W., Vila, S.B., Van Montagu, M., Herrera-Estrella, A. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Investigation of cis/trans proline isomerism in a multiply occurring peptide fragment from human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein. Loomis, R.E., Gonzalez, M., Loomis, P.M. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. N.m.r. analyses of the histidine microenvironments in a human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein. Loomis, R.E., Tseng, C.C., Levine, M.J. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Extended survivability of prostate cancer cells in the absence of trophic factors: increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, and the role of apoptosis proteins. Tang, D.G., Li, L., Chopra, D.P., Porter, A.T. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Properties of 5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate. Reaction of the oxidized form with NADH and of the reduced form with oxygen. Halaka, F.G., Babcock, G.T., Dye, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Encoding of human basic and glycosylated proline-rich proteins by the PRB gene complex and proteolytic processing of their precursor proteins. Stubbs, M., Chan, J., Kwan, A., So, J., Barchynsky, U., Rassouli-Rahsti, M., Robinson, R., Bennick, A. Arch. Oral Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Alleles at the PRB3 locus coding for a disulfide-bonded human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein (Gl 8) and a null in an Ashkenazi Jew. Azen, E.A., Minaguchi, K., Latreille, P., Kim, H.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Human salivary proline-rich (Pr) proteins: a posttranslational derivation of the phenotypes. Karn, R.C., Friedman, R.D., Merritt, A.D. Biochem. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Basic proline-rich proteins from human parotid saliva: complete covalent structures of proteins IB-1 and IB-6. Kauffman, D., Hofmann, T., Bennick, A., Keller, P. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular basis of salivary proline-rich protein and peptide synthesis: cell-free translations and processing of human and macaque statherin mRNAs and partial amino acid sequence of their signal peptides. Oppenheim, F.G., Hay, D.I., Smith, D.J., Offner, G.D., Troxler, R.F. J. Dent. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Solution and solid-state circular dichroism analyses of a human salivary proline-rich glycoprotein repeating domain and its subfragments. Gonzalez, M., Loomis, P.M., Loomis, R.E. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Rapid method for Tzanck preparations. Barr, R.J., Herten, R.J., Graham, J.H. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  36. The role of interstitial cells in the progression of renal diseases. Müller, G.A., Markovic-Lipkovski, J., Frank, J., Rodemann, H.P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Diurnal variations in plasma concentrations of basic and neutral amino acids and in red cell concentrations of aspartate and glutamate: effects of dietary protein intake. Maher, T.J., Glaeser, B.S., Wurtman, R.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
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