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Gene Review

CCL28  -  chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C-C motif chemokine 28, CCK1, MEC, Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine, Protein CCK1, ...
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Disease relevance of CCL28


High impact information on CCL28


Chemical compound and disease context of CCL28

  • Thirty-two patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received salvage therapy with a single course of mitoxantrone 6 mg/m2 intravenous (IV) bolus, etoposide 80 mg/m2 IV for a period of 1 hour, and cytarabine (Ara-C) 1 g/m2 IV for a period of 6 hours daily for 6 days (MEC) [9].
  • A phase I, dose-finding study was initiated to define a safe and effective regimen of mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine (MEC) when administered with PSC 833 to patients with early relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) [10].
  • Mitoxantrone, etoposide and intermediate-dose Ara-C (MEC): an effective regimen for poor risk acute myeloid leukemia [11].
  • There was a decay time of 16.1 (7.1) h after the systems were removed for the blood fentanyl concentration to decrease to less than the mean MEC for the control of postoperative pain [12].
  • In ductal and lobular in situ carcinomas, SA226P reacted strongly and diffusely with the remaining MEC, the CE, and the transformed luminal cells [13].

Biological context of CCL28


Anatomical context of CCL28

  • CCL28 is expressed in a variety of human and mouse tissues, and it appears to be predominantly produced by epithelial cells [14].
  • RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that salivary glands expressed CCL28 mRNA at the highest levels among various mouse tissues [1].
  • Furthermore, the venular endothelial cells in small intestine were positive for CCL25 and CCL28, whereas those in colon were positive for CCL28, suggesting their direct roles in extravasation of IgA ASCs [15].
  • In vitro, recombinant human CCL28 displays chemotactic activity for resting CD4 or CD8 T cells [14].
  • In human and mouse, chemokines CCL25 and CCL28 play an important role in attracting immune cells to the gastrointestinal tract and in controlling segmental specialization of the intestinal immune system [18].

Associations of CCL28 with chemical compounds

  • We report herein on the regulation of CCL28 in human colon epithelium by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1, bacterial flagellin, and n-butyrate, a product of microbial metabolism [16].
  • Taken together, these data support a role for CCL28 in contributing to allergen driven airway pathologies, show that proinflammatory cytokines can induce this signal and suggest a role for CCR10 expressing cells in airway inflammation [19].
  • Myocardial norepinephrine (MNEC), epinephrine (MEC), and dopamine (MDC) concentrations in endomyocardial biopsy samples were measured using the catechol-O- methyl transferase radioenzymatic method [20].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A phase III randomized study was performed using valspodar plus mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine (PSC-MEC; n=66) versus MEC (n=63) to treat patients with relapsed or refractory AML and high-risk MDS [21].
  • Chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) day 1, epirubicin 50 mg/m2 IV day 1, and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 IV day 1 (CE'P regimen) alternating every 4 weeks with methotrexate 30 mg/m2 IV day 1, etoposide 200 mg/m2 IV day 1, and lomustine (CCNU) 70 mg/m2 orally day 1 (MEC' regimen) until progression [22].

Regulatory relationships of CCL28


Other interactions of CCL28

  • In contrast to CTACK, however, MEC also supports migration through CCR3 [25].
  • CCR10 is known to be selectively expressed by plasma cells, whereas CCL28 attracts eosinophils via CCR3 and plasma cells via CCR10 and CCR3 [2].
  • ELISA indicated that renal protein levels of TNF-alpha, but not IL-6, interferon-gamma, and CCL28, were significantly higher in the HS than the LS group (2.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 pg/mg; P = 0.036) [26].
  • Peripheral blood DNA was examined for polymorphisms in genes controlling CCK: four related to CCK-1, one to the CCK gene promoter, and one related to CCK-2 [27].
  • It is well known that the amidated C-terminal part of gastrin is crucial for its interaction with the classical seven transmembrane domain receptors CCK-1 or CCK-2 [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCL28


  1. CCL28 has dual roles in mucosal immunity as a chemokine with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Hieshima, K., Ohtani, H., Shibano, M., Izawa, D., Nakayama, T., Kawasaki, Y., Shiba, F., Shiota, M., Katou, F., Saito, T., Yoshie, O. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of CCL28 by Reed-Sternberg cells defines a major subtype of classical Hodgkin's disease with frequent infiltration of eosinophils and/or plasma cells. Hanamoto, H., Nakayama, T., Miyazato, H., Takegawa, S., Hieshima, K., Tatsumi, Y., Kanamaru, A., Yoshie, O. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Protein expression of the chemokine, CCL28, in human colorectal cancer. Dimberg, J., Hugander, A., Wågsäter, D. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased serum CCL28 levels in patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. Kagami, S., Kakinuma, T., Saeki, H., Tsunemi, Y., Fujita, H., Sasaki, K., Nakamura, K., Takekoshi, T., Kishimoto, M., Mitsui, H., Komine, M., Asahina, A., Tamaki, K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. CCR10 expression is a common feature of circulating and mucosal epithelial tissue IgA Ab-secreting cells. Kunkel, E.J., Kim, C.H., Lazarus, N.H., Vierra, M.A., Soler, D., Bowman, E.P., Butcher, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. p53-dependent and p53-independent activation of apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells reveals a survival function of EGF and insulin. Merlo, G.R., Basolo, F., Fiore, L., Duboc, L., Hynes, N.E. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Members of the fatty acid binding protein family are differentiation factors for the mammary gland. Yang, Y., Spitzer, E., Kenney, N., Zschiesche, W., Li, M., Kromminga, A., Müller, T., Spener, F., Lezius, A., Veerkamp, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Depletion of BRCA1 impairs differentiation but enhances proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Furuta, S., Jiang, X., Gu, B., Cheng, E., Chen, P.L., Lee, W.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mitoxantrone, etoposide, and intermediate-dose cytarabine: an effective and tolerable regimen for the treatment of refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Amadori, S., Arcese, W., Isacchi, G., Meloni, G., Petti, M.C., Monarca, B., Testi, A.M., Mandelli, F. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Combined action of PSC 833 (Valspodar), a novel MDR reversing agent, with mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine in poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia. Visani, G., Milligan, D., Leoni, F., Chang, J., Kelsey, S., Marcus, R., Powles, R., Schey, S., Covelli, A., Isidori, A., Litchman, M., Piccaluga, P.P., Mayer, H., Malagola, M., Pfister, C. Leukemia (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitoxantrone, etoposide and intermediate-dose Ara-C (MEC): an effective regimen for poor risk acute myeloid leukemia. Spadea, A., Petti, M.C., Fazi, P., Vegna, M.L., Arcese, W., Avvisati, G., Aloe Spiriti, M.A., Latagliata, R., Meloni, G., Testi, A.M. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. The transdermal administration of fentanyl in the treatment of postoperative pain: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects. Gourlay, G.K., Kowalski, S.R., Plummer, J.L., Cherry, D.A., Gaukroger, P., Cousins, M.J. Pain (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. The phosphorylated form of connexin43 is up-regulated in breast hyperplasias and carcinomas and in their neoformed capillaries. Gould, V.E., Mosquera, J.M., Leykauf, K., Gattuso, P., Dürst, M., Alonso, A. Hum. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a novel chemokine (CCL28), which binds CCR10 (GPR2). Wang, W., Soto, H., Oldham, E.R., Buchanan, M.E., Homey, B., Catron, D., Jenkins, N., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Nguyen, N., Abrams, J., Kershenovich, D., Smith, K., McClanahan, T., Vicari, A.P., Zlotnik, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. CC chemokine ligands 25 and 28 play essential roles in intestinal extravasation of IgA antibody-secreting cells. Hieshima, K., Kawasaki, Y., Hanamoto, H., Nakayama, T., Nagakubo, D., Kanamaru, A., Yoshie, O. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulated production of the chemokine CCL28 in human colon epithelium. Ogawa, H., Iimura, M., Eckmann, L., Kagnoff, M.F. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. CCL28 production in HaCaT cells was mediated by different signal pathways from CCL27. Kagami, S., Saeki, H., Komine, M., Kakinuma, T., Nakamura, K., Tsunemi, Y., Sasaki, K., Asahina, A., Tamaki, K. Exp. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of TECK/CCL25 and MEC/CCL28 chemokines and their respective receptors CCR9 and CCR10 in porcine mucosal tissues. Meurens, F., Berri, M., Whale, J., Dybvig, T., Strom, S., Thompson, D., Brownlie, R., Townsend, H.G., Salmon, H., Gerdts, V. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Inflammation of the respiratory tract is associated with CCL28 and CCR10 expression in a murine model of allergic asthma. English, K., Brady, C., Corcoran, P., Cassidy, J.P., Mahon, B.P. Immunol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Myocardial catecholamines in primary heart muscle disease: fact or fancy? Seferović, P.M., Maksimović, R., Ostojić, M., Stepanović, S., Nikolić, J., Vasiljević, J.D., Kanjuh, V., Seferović, D., Simeunović, S., Ristić, A. Eur. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine with or without valspodar in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a phase III trial (E2995). Greenberg, P.L., Lee, S.J., Advani, R., Tallman, M.S., Sikic, B.I., Letendre, L., Dugan, K., Lum, B., Chin, D.L., Dewald, G., Paietta, E., Bennett, J.M., Rowe, J.M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. A randomized trial of alternating chemotherapy versus best supportive care in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Cellerino, R., Tummarello, D., Guidi, F., Isidori, P., Raspugli, M., Biscottini, B., Fatati, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Epithelial inflammation is associated with CCL28 production and the recruitment of regulatory T cells expressing CCR10. Eksteen, B., Miles, A., Curbishley, S.M., Tselepis, C., Grant, A.J., Walker, L.S., Adams, D.H. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induce increased expression of CCL28 by airway epithelial cells via an NFkappaB-dependent pathway. O'gorman, M.T., Jatoi, N.A., Lane, S.J., Mahon, B.P. Cell. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel chemokine ligand for CCR10 and CCR3 expressed by epithelial cells in mucosal tissues. Pan, J., Kunkel, E.J., Gosslar, U., Lazarus, N., Langdon, P., Broadwell, K., Vierra, M.A., Genovese, M.C., Butcher, E.C., Soler, D. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Renal NF-{kappa}B activation and TNF-{alpha} upregulation correlate with salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Gu, J.W., Tian, N., Shparago, M., Tan, W., Bailey, A.P., Manning, R.D. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of CCK-1 antagonist, dexloxiglumide, in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenomic study. Cremonini, F., Camilleri, M., McKinzie, S., Carlson, P., Camilleri, C.E., Burton, D., Thomforde, G., Urrutia, R., Zinsmeister, A.R. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. C-terminal heptapeptide of gastrin inhibits astrocytomas motility by interacting with a new gastrin binding site. Pannequin, J., Oiry, C., Morel, C., Kucharczak, J., Camby, I., Kiss, R., Gagne, D., Galleyrand, J.C., Martinez, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
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