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Gene Review

Pip  -  prolactin induced protein

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Prolactin-induced protein, Prolactin-inducible protein homolog
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Disease relevance of Pip


Psychiatry related information on Pip

  • We explored the role of the opioid system and the participation of ovarian hormones in the regulation of prolactin induced by the suckling stimulus at the end of pregnancy in rats with developed maternal behavior, and during lactation [6].

High impact information on Pip


Chemical compound and disease context of Pip


Biological context of Pip


Anatomical context of Pip


Associations of Pip with chemical compounds

  • Analogues of Sarmesin ([Sar1,Tyr-(OMe)4]ANGII) with Aze and Pip at position 7 had pA2 values of 7.4 and 6.5, respectively [18].
  • Synthesis and biological activities of angiotensin II, Sarilesin, and Sarmesin analogues containing Aze or Pip at position 7 [18].
  • Analogues of [Sar1]angiotensin II, Sarilesin (type I antagonist), and Sarmesin (type II antagonist) with L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) and L-pipecolic acid (Pip) at position 7 have been prepared by the solid-phase method, purified by reverse-phase HPLC, and bioassayed in the rat uterus [18].
  • Depolarizations produced by Pip or carbachol (but not GABA) were markedly depressed by hexamethonium but only slightly by bicuculline or picrotoxin [19].
  • 4. In the presence of hexamethonium (1 mM), the responses to Pip hexahydrate and to cholinoceptor agonists were abolished, but Pip citrate still changed the spike configuration and induced membrane hyperpolarization with a small conductance increase [19].

Regulatory relationships of Pip

  • The results reconfirm the possible role of noradrenergic neurons in the release of prolactin induced by EB and also suggest that EB stimulates a dopaminergic mechanism which is inhibitory to prolactin release but is normally masked by increased noradrenergic activity [22].

Other interactions of Pip


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pip

  • RESULTS: Regardless of the osmolality of the dialysis solution, elevation of Pip to 6 mmHg results in tissue expansion, primarily in theta(if), which is doubled to 1.71+/-0.11 mL/g dry weight and 1.60+/-0.17 mL/g dry weight with isotonic and hypertonic dialysis, respectively, as compared to controls (0.64+/-0.04 mL/g dry weight) [20].
  • To test this hypothesis, we used dual-label quantitative autoradiography (QAR) to measure extracellular fluid volume (thetaec) and intravascular volume (thetaiv) in the AAM of rats within the Pip range from -2.8 to +8 mmHg. thetaif was obtained by subtraction (thetaec - thetaiv). dPif/dx was measured with a micropipette and a servo-null system [27].
  • The results demonstrate that ovine prolactin-induced suppression of LH secretion after castration occurs with or without the adrenal glands [28].
  • Differential effects of adrenalectomy on the prolactin-induced suppression of LH and FSH secretion after castration in male rats [28].
  • Prolactin-induced structural luteolysis was associated with apoptosis verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) [29].


  1. Antiestrogen inhibition of prolactin-induced growth of the Nb2 rat lymphoma cell line. Biswas, R., Vonderhaar, B.K. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Modulation of stress-induced and stimulated hyperprolactinemia with the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor selective agonist, LY379268. Johnson, M.P., Chamberlain, M. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuroanatomical specificity of prolactin-induced hyperphagia in virgin female rats. Sauvé, D., Woodside, B. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Influence of subcutaneous deposits of melatonin on the antigonadotrophic effects of blinding and anosmia in male rats. A dose-response study. Chen, H.J., Reiter, R.J. Neuroendocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulatory effect of testosterone on the serotoninergic control of prolactin secretion in prepubertal rats. Moguilevsky, J.A., Justo, G., Justo, S., Szwarcfarb, B., Carbone, S., Scacchi, P. Neuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation by endogenous opioids of suckling-induced prolactin secretion in pregnant and lactating rats: role of ovarian steroids. Soaje, M., de Di Nasso, E.G., Deis, R.P. J. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Prolactin-induced cell proliferation in PC12 cells depends on JNK but not ERK activation. Cheng, Y., Zhizhin, I., Perlman, R.L., Mangoura, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolactin induction of casein mRNA in organ culture. A model system for studying peptide hormone regulation of gene expression. Matusik, R.J., Rosen, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 is expressed during both early G1 and the G1/S transition in the prolactin-induced lymphocyte cell cycle. Stevens, A.M., Yu-Lee, L.Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Suppression of Prolactin-Induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5b Signaling and Induction of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus of the Rat during Late Pregnancy and Lactation. Anderson, G.M., Beijer, P., Bang, A.S., Fenwick, M.A., Bunn, S.J., Grattan, D.R. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Low concentrations of ethanol inhibits prolactin-induced mitogenesis and cytokine expression in cultured astrocytes. DeVito, W.J., Stone, S., Mori, K. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition by genistein of prolactin-induced Nb2 lymphoma cell mitogenesis. Buckley, A.R., Buckley, D.J., Gout, P.W., Liang, H., Rao, Y.P., Blake, M.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Pressure threshold for fluid loss from the peritoneal cavity. Flessner, M.F., Schwab, A. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Rapid stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase of rat liver by prolactin. Piccoletti, R., Maroni, P., Bendinelli, P., Bernelli-Zazzera, A. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Endocytosis and degradation of ovine prolactin by Nb2 lymphoma cells: characterization and effects of agents known to alter prolactin-induced mitogenesis. Augustine, E.C., Kensinger, R.S. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Prolactin-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages during regression of the rat corpus luteum. Olson, K.K., Townson, D.H. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Progesterone on an oestrogen background enhances prolactin-induced apoptosis in regressing corpora lutea in the cyclic rat: possible involvement of luteal endothelial cell progesterone receptors. Gaytán, F., Morales, C., Bellido, C., Aguilar, R., Millán, Y., Martín De Las Mulas, J., Sánchez-Criado, J.E. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Synthesis and biological activities of angiotensin II, Sarilesin, and Sarmesin analogues containing Aze or Pip at position 7. Matsoukas, J.M., Agelis, G., Hondrelis, J., Yamdagni, R., Wu, Q., Ganter, R., Smith, J.R., Moore, D., Moore, G.J. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of piperazine on rat sympathetic neurones. Connor, J.D., Constanti, A., Dunn, P.M., Forward, A., Nistri, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressures modulate partitioning of tissue water in abdominal muscle during dialysis. Zakaria, E.R., Lofthouse, J., Flessner, M.F. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. In vivo hydraulic conductivity of muscle: effects of hydrostatic pressure. Zakaria el-R, n.u.l.l., Lofthouse, J., Flessner, M.F. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Catecholamine mechanisms in the feedback effects of estradiol benzoate on the release of LH and prolactin. Tobias, H., Carr, L.A., Voogt, J.L. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. The activity of transcription factor Stat5 responds to prolactin, growth hormone, and IGF-I in rat and bovine mammary explant culture. Yang, J., Kennelly, J.J., Baracos, V.E. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of serotonin on basal and TRH-induced release of prolactin from rat pituitary glands in vitro. Apfelbaum, M.E. Acta Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Synergistic gene expressions of cyclin E, cdk2, cdk5 and E2F-1 during the prolactin-induced G1/S transition in rat Nb2 pre-T lymphoma cells. Hosokawa, Y., Yang, M., Kaneko, S., Tanaka, M., Nakashima, K. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Nuclear translocation of STAT5 and increased expression of Fos related antigens (FRAs) in hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons after prolactin administration. Lerant, A., Kanyicska, B., Freeman, M.E. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. In vivo effects of hydrostatic pressure on interstitium of abdominal wall muscle. Zakaria, E.R., Lofthouse, J., Flessner, M.F. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential effects of adrenalectomy on the prolactin-induced suppression of LH and FSH secretion after castration in male rats. Park, S.K., Grattan, D.R., Selmanoff, M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Apoptosis and PCNA expression induced by prolactin in structural involution of the rat corpus luteum. Kiya, T., Endo, T., Goto, T., Yamamoto, H., Ito, E., Kudo, R., Behrman, H.R. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
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