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Chemical Compound Review

Adipsin     methyl1-methylpiperidine-3- carboxylate

Synonyms: PubChem11771, SureCN35889, AG-E-18356, AG-I-03394, ACMC-209xg6, ...
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Disease relevance of Adipsin

  • Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity [1].
  • Adipsin, a biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity mediated by a functional gamma-secretase inhibitor [2].
  • Adipsin expression was still normal in obese mice 15 days old but frankly deficient at 30 days of age when hyperinsulinemia has developed [3].
  • The precise mechanisms by which weight loss occurs are currently being elucidated and probably involve the actions of classic hormones as well as cytokines, such as TNF (cachectin), adipsin, and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 [4].
  • We also observed that blood adipsin concentrations can vary as a function of feeding or adiposity, in that they tend to be mildly elevated in obese individuals or mildly reduced in individuals with total lipo-atrophy, cachexia related to AIDS and anorexia nervosa [5].

Psychiatry related information on Adipsin


High impact information on Adipsin


Chemical compound and disease context of Adipsin


Biological context of Adipsin


Anatomical context of Adipsin

  • Immunogold labeling with an antibody to an adipsin peptide sequence localized EVE to PA smooth muscle cells [16].
  • Additionally, the aberrant expression of adipsin, and its presence in feces may serve as a noninvasive biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with perturbed Notch signaling [2].
  • Microarray analysis of ileum from FGSI-treated rats revealed differential expression responses in a number of genes indicative of Notch signaling perturbation, including the serine protease adipsin [2].
  • A major role for the adrenal gland and adrenal glucocorticoids in the aberrant regulation of adipsin in these models of obesity is indicated by several experiments [20].
  • An intact microtubule network is specifically required for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation since nocodazole treatment did not affect insulin-mediated GLUT1 translocation or adipsin secretion [21].

Associations of Adipsin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Adipsin

  • Additional studies in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes demonstrate that this FGSI inhibits Hes-1 expression while up-regulating adipsin expression [2].
  • Low level constitutive expression of PPAR gamma in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (at levels approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than in preadipocytes) partially blocked the inhibitory effect of TNF alpha on aP2 and adipsin expression [25].
  • While tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and adipsin, an adipocyte derived protease, were unaffected by LIP, changes in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were significantly correlated (p = 0.02) with those seen for PAI-1 [26].
  • RESULTS: Leptin (Lep) and adipsin expressions had the greatest fold differences between obese and lean mice [27].
  • We show that the gene encoding CETP is expressed in preadipocytes and is present throughout differentiation as compared to LPL and adipsin which were detected in the majority of samples by day 2 or 3 of adipogenesis [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adipsin


  1. Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity. Flier, J.S., Cook, K.S., Usher, P., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Adipsin, a biomarker of gastrointestinal toxicity mediated by a functional gamma-secretase inhibitor. Searfoss, G.H., Jordan, W.H., Calligaro, D.O., Galbreath, E.J., Schirtzinger, L.M., Berridge, B.R., Gao, H., Higgins, M.A., May, P.C., Ryan, T.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Impairment of adipsin expression is secondary to the onset of obesity in db/db mice. Dugail, I., Quignard-Boulangé, A., Le Liepvre, X., Lavau, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Involuntary weight loss. Reife, C.M. Med. Clin. North Am. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Concentrations of adipsin in blood and rates of adipsin secretion by adipose tissue in humans with normal, elevated and diminished adipose tissue mass. Napolitano, A., Lowell, B.B., Damm, D., Leibel, R.L., Ravussin, E., Jimerson, D.C., Lesem, M.D., Van Dyke, D.C., Daly, P.A., Chatis, P. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of body weight and caloric restriction on serum complement proteins, including Factor D/adipsin: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity. Pomeroy, C., Mitchell, J., Eckert, E., Raymond, N., Crosby, R., Dalmasso, A.P. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic variation at the adipsin locus and response to long-term overfeeding. Ukkola, O., Chagnon, M., Tremblay, A., Bouchard, C. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Adipsin and complement factor D activity: an immune-related defect in obesity. Rosen, B.S., Cook, K.S., Yaglom, J., Groves, D.L., Volanakis, J.E., Damm, D., White, T., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Targeting of nonexpressed genes in embryonic stem cells via homologous recombination. Johnson, R.S., Sheng, M., Greenberg, M.E., Kolodner, R.D., Papaioannou, V.E., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Adipsin: a circulating serine protease homolog secreted by adipose tissue and sciatic nerve. Cook, K.S., Min, H.Y., Johnson, D., Chaplinsky, R.J., Flier, J.S., Hunt, C.R., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Independent regulation of adipose tissue-specificity and obesity response of the adipsin promoter in transgenic mice. Platt, K.A., Claffey, K.P., Wilkison, W.O., Spiegelman, B.M., Ross, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduced adipsin expression in murine obesity: effect of age and treatment with the sympathomimetic-thermogenic drug mixture ephedrine and caffeine. Lowell, B.B., Napolitano, A., Usher, P., Dulloo, A.G., Rosen, B.S., Spiegelman, B.M., Flier, J.S. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Alterations in sympathetic nervous system activity do not regulate adipsin gene expression in mice. Napolitano, A., Lowell, B.B., Flier, J.S. International journal of obesity. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of adipsin and body composition in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mouse. Spurlock, M.E., Hahn, K.J., Miner, J.L. Physiol. Behav. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Elastase and cell matrix interactions in the pathobiology of vascular disease. Rabinovitch, M. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The endogenous vascular elastase that governs development and progression of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats is a novel enzyme related to the serine proteinase adipsin. Zhu, L., Wigle, D., Hinek, A., Kobayashi, J., Ye, C., Zuker, M., Dodo, H., Keeley, F.W., Rabinovitch, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Obesity-linked regulation of the adipsin gene promoter in transgenic mice. Platt, K.A., Min, H.Y., Ross, S.R., Spiegelman, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Adipocyte P2 gene: developmental expression and homology of 5'-flanking sequences among fat cell-specific genes. Hunt, C.R., Ro, J.H., Dobson, D.E., Min, H.Y., Spiegelman, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Animal models of obesity: genetic aspects. Johnson, P.R., Greenwood, M.R., Horwitz, B.A., Stern, J.S. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Adrenal glucocorticoids regulate adipsin gene expression in genetically obese mice. Spiegelman, B.M., Lowell, B., Napolitano, A., Dubuc, P., Barton, D., Francke, U., Groves, D.L., Cook, K.S., Flier, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation is dependent on the microtubule network. Olson, A.L., Trumbly, A.R., Gibson, G.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) defines two insulin-regulated secretory pathways in adipocytes. Yang, C.Z., Mueckler, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Adipsin, the adipocyte serine protease: gene structure and control of expression by tumor necrosis factor. Min, H.Y., Spiegelman, B.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Thiazolidinediones inhibit osteoclast-like cell formation and bone resorption in vitro. Okazaki, R., Toriumi, M., Fukumoto, S., Miyamoto, M., Fujita, T., Tanaka, K., Takeuchi, Y. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression contributes to the antiadipogenic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Zhang, B., Berger, J., Hu, E., Szalkowski, D., White-Carrington, S., Spiegelman, B.M., Moller, D.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule after triacylglycerol infusion in man. Krebs, M., Geiger, M., Polak, K., Vales, A., Schmetterer, L., Wagner, O.F., Waldhäusl, W., Binder, B.R., Roden, M. Thromb. Haemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Obesity in BSB mice is correlated with expression of genes for iron homeostasis and leptin. Farahani, P., Chiu, S., Bowlus, C.L., Boffelli, D., Lee, E., Fisler, J.S., Krauss, R.M., Warden, C.H. Obes. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene expression during differentiation of human preadipocytes to adipocytes in primary culture. Gauthier, B., Robb, M., McPherson, R. Atherosclerosis (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Adipsin gene expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes is posttranscriptionally down-regulated by retinoic acid. Antras, J., Lasnier, F., Pairault, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
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