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Gene Review

SCD  -  stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Acyl-CoA desaturase, Delta(9)-desaturase, Delta-9 desaturase, FADS5, Fatty acid desaturase, ...
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Disease relevance of SCD


Psychiatry related information on SCD

  • Efforts to create more awareness of SCD are paradoxically increasing frustration and stigmatization in the absence of a commensurate improvement of services [6].
  • Self-efficacy is not associated with demographic factors, but is predicted by physical symptoms, while different aspects of self-management are predicted by age (responsibility with care), educational level (independence and confidence with care) and psychological symptoms (knowledge about SCD and confidence with care) [7].
  • Significant portions of the variance in adjustment were accounted for by stress appraisal (19%), expectations of efficacy (9%) and health locus of control (9%) for children with CF and by stress appraisal (21%) and self-worth (12%) for children with SCD [8].
  • The predictive value of D5D activity was independent of lifestyle factors (smoking, BMI and physical activity), whereas the risk associated with higher SCD-1 and D6D activities was mainly explained by obesity [9].

High impact information on SCD


Chemical compound and disease context of SCD


Biological context of SCD

  • However, the effects of insulin-sensitizing drugs on SCD gene expression and desaturase activities are unknown in humans [19].
  • Fatty acid desaturases such as steaoryl-CoA desaturase (SCD) convert saturated to unsaturated fatty acids and are involved in lipogenesis [19].
  • The strong correlation of high levels of MUFA and neoplastic phenotype suggest that the regulation of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) must play a significant role in cancer development [1].
  • The increase in SCD mRNA expression was preceded by a marked increase in Smad2 phosphorylation in TGF-beta-treated human retinal pigment epithelial cells [20].
  • The human homologue, SCD, maps to a region of chromosome 10 linked to type 2 diabetes, and SCD activity correlates with insulin sensitivity [21].

Anatomical context of SCD

  • SCD activity led to an increased content of plasma membrane monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1) at the expense of saturated fatty acids (18:0) [22].
  • Levels of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, LXRalpha, SCD and ABCA1 mRNAs were similar in macrophages from subjects with T2DM and controls [23].
  • SCD gene expression in adipose tissue was determined in 23 subjects, and in a representative subgroup (n = 10) we assessed fatty acid composition in fasting plasma triglycerides to estimate SCD and delta6- and delta5-desaturase activity, using product-to-precursor indexes [19].
  • In this study, the levels of SCD protein and activity were investigated in normal (WI38) and SV40-transformed (SV40-WI38) human lung fibroblasts [1].
  • TGF-beta also increased SCD mRNA expression in several other cell lines tested [20].

Associations of SCD with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of SCD


Other interactions of SCD


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SCD


  1. High stearoyl-CoA desaturase protein and activity levels in simian virus 40 transformed-human lung fibroblasts. Scaglia, N., Caviglia, J.M., Igal, R.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Mediates the Pro-lipogenic Effects of Dietary Saturated Fat. Sampath, H., Miyazaki, M., Dobrzyn, A., Ntambi, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression is a frequent event in prostate carcinoma. Moore, S., Knudsen, B., True, L.D., Hawley, S., Etzioni, R., Wade, C., Gifford, D., Coleman, I., Nelson, P.S. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia. Attie, A.D., Krauss, R.M., Gray-Keller, M.P., Brownlie, A., Miyazaki, M., Kastelein, J.J., Lusis, A.J., Stalenhoef, A.F., Stoehr, J.P., Hayden, M.R., Ntambi, J.M. J. Lipid Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Fatty acid desaturase regulation in adipose tissue by dietary composition is independent of weight loss and is correlated with the plasma triacylglycerol response. Mangravite, L.M., Dawson, K., Davis, R.R., Gregg, J.P., Krauss, R.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. A profile of sickle cell disease in Nigeria. Akinyanju, O.O. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Multi-site study of transition in adolescents with sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom and the United States. Anie, K.A., Telfair, J. International journal of adolescent medicine and health. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Illness specific patterns of psychological adjustment and cognitive adaptational processes in children with cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease. Thompson, R.J., Gustafson, K.E., Gil, K.M., Godfrey, J., Murphy, L.M. Journal of clinical psychology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Fatty acid composition of serum lipids predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in men. Warensjö, E., Risérus, U., Vessby, B. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Critical role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in the onset of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Gutiérrez-Juárez, R., Pocai, A., Mulas, C., Ono, H., Bhanot, S., Monia, B.P., Rossetti, L. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Trans-activation of the DNA-damage signalling protein kinase Chk2 by T-loop exchange. Oliver, A.W., Paul, A., Boxall, K.J., Barrie, S.E., Aherne, G.W., Garrett, M.D., Mittnacht, S., Pearl, L.H. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The N terminus of microsomal delta 9 stearoyl-CoA desaturase contains the sequence determinant for its rapid degradation. Mziaut, H., Korza, G., Ozols, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 deficiency protects against hypertriglyceridemia and increases plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol induced by liver X receptor activation. Chu, K., Miyazaki, M., Man, W.C., Ntambi, J.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity by the cis-9,trans-11 isomer and the trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Choi, Y., Park, Y., Storkson, J.M., Pariza, M.W., Ntambi, J.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression. Ntambi, J.M., Miyazaki, M., Dobrzyn, A. Lipids (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Class III drugs and congestive heart failure: focus on the congestive heart failure-survival trial of antiarrhythmic therapy. Singh, S.N., Fletcher, R.D. Am. J. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Lung fibrosis is ameliorated by pirfenidone fed in diet after the second dose in a three-dose bleomycin-hamster model. Iyer, S.N., Margolin, S.B., Hyde, D.M., Giri, S.N. Exp. Lung Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Combination erythropoietin-hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease: experience from the National Institutes of Health and a literature review. Little, J.A., McGowan, V.R., Kato, G.J., Partovi, K.S., Feld, J.J., Maric, I., Martyr, S., Taylor, J.G., Machado, R.F., Heller, T., Castro, O., Gladwin, M.T. Haematologica (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Rosiglitazone increases indexes of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in humans: link to insulin sensitization and the role of dominant-negative mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Risérus, U., Tan, G.D., Fielding, B.A., Neville, M.J., Currie, J., Savage, D.B., Chatterjee, V.K., Frayn, K.N., O'Rahilly, S., Karpe, F. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase expression through a Smad signaling pathway. Samuel, W., Nagineni, C.N., Kutty, R.K., Parks, W.T., Gordon, J.S., Prouty, S.M., Hooks, J.J., Wiggert, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of the contribution to type 2 diabetes susceptibility of sequence variation in the gene encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase, a key regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Liew, C.F., Groves, C.J., Wiltshire, S., Zeggini, E., Frayling, T.M., Owen, K.R., Walker, M., Hitman, G.A., Levy, J.C., O'rahilly, S., Hattersley, A.T., Johnston, D.G., McCarthy, M.I. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase inhibits ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux and modulates membrane domain structure. Sun, Y., Hao, M., Luo, Y., Liang, C.P., Silver, D.L., Cheng, C., Maxfield, F.R., Tall, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Monocyte-derived macrophages from men and women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus differ in fatty acid composition compared with non-diabetic controls. Senanayake, S., Brownrigg, L.M., Panicker, V., Croft, K.D., Joyce, D.A., Steer, J.H., Puddey, I.B., Yeap, B.B. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. LXR-mediated activation of macrophage stearoyl-CoA desaturase generates unsaturated fatty acids that destabilize ABCA1. Wang, Y., Kurdi-Haidar, B., Oram, J.F. J. Lipid Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by retinoic acid. Samuel, W., Kutty, R.K., Nagineni, S., Gordon, J.S., Prouty, S.M., Chandraratna, R.A., Wiggert, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  27. KGF induces lipogenic genes through a PI3K and JNK/SREBP-1 pathway in H292 cells. Chang, Y., Wang, J., Lu, X., Thewke, D.P., Mason, R.J. J. Lipid Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  29. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase - a new player in skeletal muscle metabolism regulation. Dobrzyń, A., Dobrzyń, P. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans. Hulver, M.W., Berggren, J.R., Carper, M.J., Miyazaki, M., Ntambi, J.M., Hoffman, E.P., Thyfault, J.P., Stevens, R., Dohm, G.L., Houmard, J.A., Muoio, D.M. Cell metabolism. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  32. Isolation and characterization of the human stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter: requirement of a conserved CCAAT cis-element. Zhang, L., Ge, L., Tran, T., Stenn, K., Prouty, S.M. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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