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Gene Review

LIMA1  -  LIM domain and actin binding 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EPLIN, Epithelial protein lost in neoplasm, LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1, PP624, SREBP3
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Disease relevance of LIMA1

  • The expression of EPLIN-alpha is either down-regulated or lost in the majority of oral cancer cell lines (8/8), prostate cancer cell lines (4/4) and xenograft tumors (3/3), and breast cancer cell lines (5/6) [1].
  • In the majority of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines, the expression of EPLIN-alpha is significantly reduced, while the expression of EPLIN-beta is either up-regulated or unchanged [2].
  • Loss of epidermal cohesion in normal skin explants incubated with pemphigus foliaceous IgG was dependent upon the addition of plasminogen and was inhibited by aprotinin or lima bean trypsin inhibitor, which indicated that plasmin is the active enzyme in producing acantholysis [3].
  • Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from five people with diarrhoea in Lima [4].
  • We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level) [5].

Psychiatry related information on LIMA1

  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection risk among pregnant women in Lima depends largely on their male partners' risk behaviors [6].
  • A 36-year-old woman with no significant medical or familial history flew economy class from Lima, Peru, to Madrid, Spain. On disembarkation she presented sudden dyspnea and a depressed level of consciousness, global aphasia, and right hemiparesis [7].
  • The participants were 532 students in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades from Shawnee Middle School in Lima, Ohio. The students were asked to a complete a questionnaire (CANKAP--Comprehensive Assessment of Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices), which measured nutrition knowledge and eating behavior, and is reproduced here [8].
  • The classical leucotomy of Moniz and Lima, with some modifications, was used for treatment of schizophrenia and severe pain [9].
  • Socioeconomic conditions, food habits and formulated food programs in the Pueblos Jóvenes of Lima, Peru [10].

High impact information on LIMA1

  • An A alpha-arginine-141 to serine substitution has been identified in a homozygous dysfibrinogen, fibrinogen Lima, associated with impaired fibrin polymerization [11].
  • INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether the El Niño phenomenon and ambient temperature had an effect on the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea, we analysed data on daily number of admissions of children with diarrhoea to the Oral Rehydration Unit of the Instituto de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru, between January, 1993, and November, 1998 [12].
  • El Niño and diarrhoea and dehydration in Lima, Peru [13].
  • We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay [14].
  • The findings show that the prevalence of H pylori infection is high among young Peruvian children and that the municipal water supply seems to be an important source of infection among Lima children from families of both low and high socioeconomic status [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of LIMA1


Biological context of LIMA1


Anatomical context of LIMA1


Associations of LIMA1 with chemical compounds

  • In a peri-urban shanty town in Lima, Peru, that was hyperendemic for Giardia lamblia, 44 children aged between 0.9 months and 10 years were effectively treated for Giardia lamblia with tinidazole [22].
  • Fluorescence polarization decay of tyrosine in lima bean trypsin inhibitor [23].
  • Additionally, it was inhibited by popcorn inhibitor, leupeptin, hexadimethrine bromide, protamine sulfate, dansyl-arginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl) amide (DAPA), diisopropylphosphofluoridate (DFP), aprotinin, and at excessively high concentrations, soybean and lima bean trypsin inhibitors [24].
  • In general, the enzymatically active carboxy-terminal fragment of HF (HFf) was inhibited by the same agents that inhibited HFea, but aprotinin, protamine sulfate and hexadimethrine bromide were more effective against HFf than HFea, while the reverse was true of lima bean trypsin inhibitor [24].
  • Antibody-induced cell detachment was partially inhibited by the addition of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and detachment was completely inhibited by the addition of lima bean trypsin inhibitor [25].

Other interactions of LIMA1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LIMA1

  • We used the 13C-urea breath test to study the prevalence of infection in 407 Peruvian children from Lima, aged 2 months to 12 years, from families of low and high socioeconomic status [15].
  • A simple one-step procedure has been developed to effect complete removal of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and chymotrypsinogen by a combination of affinity chromatography and salting-out adsorption on lima bean protease inhibitor coupled to Sepharose (a column (0.9 X 60 cm) operated in series with a regeneratable 1-ml bed) [26].
  • However, despite the similar activities described, several significant differences between recombinant and native lima bean lectin were found, including mobility on gel filtration, aggregation in solution, and its CD spectrum [27].
  • Northern blot analysis showed absence of lectin mRNA in the leaves, roots, or stems of 16-day-old lima bean plants [28].
  • Southern blot analysis reveals the presence of several genes which hybridize to the cloned gene and which we propose are genes included in the lima bean lectin gene family [27].


  1. EPLIN, epithelial protein lost in neoplasm. Maul, R.S., Chang, D.D. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the human EPLIN (Epithelial Protein Lost in Neoplasm) gene reveals distinct promoters for the two EPLIN isoforms. Chen, S., Maul, R.S., Kim, H.R., Chang, D.D. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Anti-cell surface pemphigus autoantibody stimulates plasminogen activator activity of human epidermal cells. A mechanism for the loss of epidermal cohesion and blister formation. Hashimoto, K., Shafran, K.M., Webber, P.S., Lazarus, G.S., Singer, K.H. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from five people with diarrhoea in Lima. Kay, B.A., Sack, R.B., Spira, W.M., Guerra, H.E., Guerrero, C.E., Chaparro, E., Yi, A.E., Salazar-Lindo, E., Chea, E., Wachsmuth, I.K. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels. Jefferson, J.A., Escudero, E., Hurtado, M.E., Pando, J., Tapia, R., Swenson, E.R., Prchal, J., Schreiner, G.F., Schoene, R.B., Hurtado, A., Johnson, R.J. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Sexual networks of pregnant women with and without HIV infection. Johnson, K.M., Alarcón, J., Watts, D.M., Rodriguez, C., Velasquez, C., Sanchez, J., Lockhart, D., Stoner, B.P., Holmes, K.K. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Stroke and pulmonary thromboembolism after a long flight. Belvís, R., Masjuan, J., García-Barragán, N., Cocho, D., Martí-Fàbregas, J., Santamaría, A., Leta, R.G., Martínez-Castrillo, J.C., Fernández-Ruiz, L.C., Gilo, F., Martí-Vilalta, J.L. Eur. J. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The correlation between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in an American school: the role of ethnicity. Pirouznia, M. Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire) (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. On the history of psychosurgery in Russia. Lichterman, B.L. Acta neurochirurgica. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Socioeconomic conditions, food habits and formulated food programs in the Pueblos Jóvenes of Lima, Peru. Benavides, M., Rhoades, R.E. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutrición. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Fibrinogen Lima: a homozygous dysfibrinogen with an A alpha-arginine-141 to serine substitution associated with extra N-glycosylation at A alpha-asparagine-139. Impaired fibrin gel formation but normal fibrin-facilitated plasminogen activation catalyzed by tissue-type plasminogen activator. Maekawa, H., Yamazumi, K., Muramatsu, S., Kaneko, M., Hirata, H., Takahashi, N., Arocha-Piñango, C.L., Rodriguez, S., Nagy, H., Perez-Requejo, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of El Niño and ambient temperature on hospital admissions for diarrhoeal diseases in Peruvian children. Checkley, W., Epstein, L.D., Gilman, R.H., Figueroa, D., Cama, R.I., Patz, J.A., Black, R.E. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. El Niño and diarrhoea and dehydration in Lima, Peru. Salazar-Lindo, E., Pinell-Salles, P., Maruy, A., Chea-Woo, E. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Garcia, H.H., Martinez, M., Gilman, R., Herrera, G., Tsang, V.C., Pilcher, J.B., Diaz, F., Verastegui, M., Gallo, C., Porras, M. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Water source as risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children. Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group. Klein, P.D., Graham, D.Y., Gaillour, A., Opekun, A.R., Smith, E.O. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasma folate, vitamin B(12), and homocyst(e)ine concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive Peruvian women. Sanchez, S.E., Zhang, C., Rene Malinow, M., Ware-Jauregui, S., Larrabure, G., Williams, M.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Efficacy and tolerability of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in adult household contacts of patients with cholera. Echevarría, J., Seas, C., Carrillo, C., Mostorino, R., Ruiz, R., Gotuzzo, E. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Zhang, C., Williams, M.A., Sanchez, S.E., King, I.B., Ware-Jauregui, S., Larrabure, G., Bazul, V., Leisenring, W.M. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in housemaids working in affluent neighborhoods in Lima, Peru. Huisa, B.N., Menacho, L.A., Rodriguez, S., Bustos, J.A., Gilman, R.H., Tsang, V.C., Gonzalez, A.E., García, H.H. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. On-pump beating heart versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery-evidence of pump-induced myocardial injury. Rastan, A.J., Bittner, H.B., Gummert, J.F., Walther, T., Schewick, C.V., Girdauskas, E., Mohr, F.W. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. EPLIN regulates actin dynamics by cross-linking and stabilizing filaments. Maul, R.S., Song, Y., Amann, K.J., Gerbin, S.C., Pollard, T.D., Chang, D.D. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic Third World community. Gilman, R.H., Marquis, G.S., Miranda, E., Vestegui, M., Martinez, H. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Fluorescence polarization decay of tyrosine in lima bean trypsin inhibitor. Nordlund, T.M., Liu, X.Y., Sommer, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Studies on the inhibition of ellagic acid-activated Hageman factor (factor XII) and Hageman factor fragments. Ratnoff, O.D. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Antibody-induced release of cellular proteinases: loss of adhesion of human melanoma cells after binding of anti-melanoma antibody. Singer, K.H., Hashimoto, K., Stuhlmiller, G.M., Lazarus, G.S. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Preparation of protease-free and ribonuclease-free pancreatic deoxyribonuclease. Wang, D., Moore, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. The sequence of a second member of the lima bean lectin gene family and the expression and characterization of recombinant lectin in Escherichia coli. Jordan, E.T., Goldstein, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the lima bean lectin. Imbrie-Milligan, C., Datta, P., Goldstein, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
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